Dating organ England

Delight in the 1932 Compton cinema organ at Stockport Plaza, then continue to explore instru-ments in Lancashire. The characterful instrument at Ormskirk Parish Church (portions dating to the 13th century) is the county’s largest. Its indepen-dent ranks are a lavish feature for a parish church organ. Return to Manchester for dinner on own The number of people waiting for an organ transplant has risen to five-year high as a result of the coronavirus pandemic, new figures show. The NHS has issued an “urgent plea” to people to ... Overshadowed by an incredible ongoing choral tradition, ENGLISH organ music has had a “bad rap”, partly because English music in general suffered a long lapse between the time of HENRY PURCELL (1659-1695) and the rejuvinating energies of HUBERT PARRY (1848-1918), and partly because England was, after all, an insular culture with strong-held ... The majority of England’s 56 million population will automatically be enrolled as organ donors in May, unless they choose to opt out, the Health Secretary has confirmed. At this time, the Estey Organ Museum does not repair reed, pipe, or electronic organs. There are several reputable organ restorers in New England and throughout the country. The Reed Organ Society has member throughout the United States who specialize in this work. Contact the Estey Organ Museum for additional information. First unveiled in 1834, this organ in Birmingham Town Hall boasts enormous 32 foot pipes that were, for the first time in England, incorporated into the decorative case front. Paid for from public funds, it was the largest organ in England at the time. Even today, with its 6000 pipes, it is still comparable with the most powerful of cathedral organs around the world. THE ORGAN . Records of organs in St Leonard’s Church go back before 1480. The present instrument was built in 1936 by the firm of Harrison and Harrison (Durham and London) but used some pipes from the church’s previous two organs - a few from the work of Mr England of 1812 and far more from the organ by J W Walker & Sons of 1878. A large pipe organ dating back to the silent film era has been installed in a south Cumbrian cinema after five years of restoration work. The Wurlitzer 2/7 organ has been fully restored and placed ... The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network operates the national database of all patients in the U.S. waiting for a transplant. OPTN's computer system matches the donor's organs to potential recipients. The network has policies that regulate how donor organs are matched and allocated to patients on the waiting list. There are some common ... The law surrounding organ donation in England has changed, meaning that most adults in the country will now have to “opt-out” if they do not wish to be a donor.

For fun, I compiled a Timeline of Archaeological, Genetic, and Geologic data. I think this is the audience that would appreciate it. (My observations in the comment section.)

2020.09.23 02:33 SkyAnimal For fun, I compiled a Timeline of Archaeological, Genetic, and Geologic data. I think this is the audience that would appreciate it. (My observations in the comment section.)

A timeline of Human Development, using archaeological, genetic, and geologic data:
Earth's orbit experiences a Orbital Eccentricity, 100,000 year cycle orbit and inclination variation, going from circular to elliptical, the hemispheres experience more or less sun or exposure to the sun for extended periods, causing ice ages. Scientists estimate we are near the minimum, a 6% change in solar energy. At peak, the earth experiences a change of 30%.
44 million y a - Hominid ancestors acquire Herpes virus.
10 million y a - Primate ancestors develop genes to digest alcohol.
6 million years ago - Primate ancestors split from Chimpanzee/Bonobo line (15 million DNA mutations have occurred since then; each person born today has 100 mutations distinct to them, most don’t survive.)
5.3 m y a - Mediterranean Sea experiences the Messinian Salinity Crisis, for 600,000 years the Straight of Gibraltar closed off, causing the Mediterranean to shrink down to two inland seas with Italy and Greece separating them. Ends in the Zanclean Flood, a river of Atlantic sea water flows thru Gibraltar and fills the Mediterranean in 2 years.
5 m y a - Arabian-African continent reconnects with Asia.
4 - 3 m y a - Hominid ancestors acquire pubic lice from Gorillas (genetic evidence).
3.6 - 2.58 m y a - Considered the Neogene Period.
3.3 m y a - Stone tools found in Kenya and Ethiopia.
3-1.4 m y a - Chimpanzee Herpes oral virus mutates into Hominid genital virus, cross species transmission (Homo Habilis or Paranthropus Boisei).
2.6 m y a - Mode One Stone Tools found in Ethiopia, would subsequently spread. Flourished to 1.7 million y a in southern and eastern Africa. Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) Era (2.6 m y a till end of last Ice Age, 11,000 y a). Subdivided into the Early- or Lower Palaeolithic (c. 2,6 million years ago - c. 250,000 years ago); the Middle Palaeolithic (c. 250,000 years ago - c. 30,000 years ago); and the Late- or Upper Palaeolithic (c. 50,000/40,000 - c. 10,000 years ago
2.58 million - 11,700 years ago - Considered the start of the Quaternary Period, and covers the Pleistocene.
2 m years ago - Earliest Hominids start eating meat.
1.89 m y a - Earliest evidence of Homo Erectus (first to leave Africa and spread across Asia).
1.8 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found on Java.
1.7 m years ago - Mode Two Stone Tools (slicing, butchering, evidence of drilling tools) appear in Kenya and southern Africa.
1.6 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found in northern China.
1.6 - 1.5 m y a - Africa, Turkana Boy dies, likely from a tooth cavity infection. He was either 8 or 11-12 years old and 61 inches tall. Brain 880 ccm.
1.5 m y a - Kenya, possible start of Hominids using fire to cook food. (increase in caloric intake, which would lead to evolution; however, Paranthropus Boisei is the local species, brain 500-550 ccm, 54 inches tall)
1 million years ago - Likely split between ancestor of Homo Sapiens and proto-Neanderthal-Denisovan species. (Mitochondrial DNA evidence.) South Africa, evidence of fire use for cooking.
1 m - 700,000 y a - Java, Java Man dies, brain 900 ccm. 5' 8" tall.
820,000 - 580,000 y a - Durum Wheat develops out of natural hybridization with Einkorn Wheat (genetic analysis).
800,000? y a - Low world temperatures recorded. Height of Ice Age?
790,000 y a - Levant, oldest Fire hearths found. (Homo Heidelbergensis, 1,250 ccm brain, 69 in tall)
740,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
640,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
550,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
540,000 - 430,000 y a - Art: Sea shell formed into decoration by Homo Erectus. (Could indicate when sea shells began to be used as whistles and horns.)
530,000? y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, high CO2 content in the atmosphere, 524-474,000).
500,000 y a - South Africa, evidence of Spears. (Would become common 300,000 years ago.)
450,000 y a - Earliest evidence of Neanderthal.
450,000 y a - Global temperatures had dropped, stayed that way for thousands of years.
430,000 - 230,000 y a - Durum Wheat cross-breeds with wild Goat Grass (genetic analysis).
400,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 424-374,000).
400,000 y a - Germany, oldest Spears found. France (Terra Amata), possible evidence of manmade shelter using prepared wood.
360,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
310,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 337-300,000).
300,000 y a - Kenya, oldest evidence of Ochre rocks being used for pigment.
300,000-200,000 y a - Origin of Male Y-Chromosome that all current males are descended from. (40% of males do not reproduce.)
270,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
240,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 242–230,000).
200,000 y a - France, evidence of Neanderthals fishing. "Mitochondrial Eve," source of all Human Haplo-groups that everyone is descended from, existed at this time. Scientists think that language with well formed, meaningful sentences was achieved (migration patterns, anatomy, tool making; some argue that truly modern language is 50,000 years old).
194,000-135,000 y a - Penultimate Glacial Period.
190,000 y a - Early evidence of Denisovans. (At least three interbreeding events would occur with Homo Sapiens. EPAS1 gene, hemoglobin concentration, Tibetan plateau.)
190,000-50,000 y a - Flores Island, evidence of tool use by the Human Hobbit.
170,000 - 80,000 y a - Body Lice evolve (genetic evidence, feed on human skin, live in clothing; evidence of clothing)
140,000 y a - Homo Sapiens found in Europe.
130,000 y a - Evidence of humans in North America. Crete, earliest human settlements found on the island. Art: Neanderthal necklace made of eagle talons. Croatia: Neanderthal teeth show possible dental work.
125,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 130-115,000). Sea levels 4-6 meters (18 feet) higher then today.
110,000-15,000 y a - Last Glacial Period.
100,000-60,000 y a - Flores Island, bone fossil evidence of the Human Hobbit.
100,000 y a - Oldest example of proper human burial. South Africa, Blombos Cave, pigment (paint) creation kit found; possible oldest evidence of abstract art.
75,000 years ago - Likely rise of Hunter Genotype in Homo Sapiens.
75,000 y a - Art: Drilled snail shells found in South African cave.
73,000 y a - South Africa (Blombos Cave), evidence of Red Ochre art on pieces of stone, stone with deliberate lines cut into it possibly representing count marks.
72,000 y a - South Africa, Beads found in cave.
70,000 y a - Mitochondrial DNA suggests this is when the Haplo-group of early humans migrated out of Africa to populate the rest of the world. Earliest evidence of Glue (sticky tree gum, ochre rocks, fat cooked over fire).
70-60,000 y a - Earliest evidence of bone and stone arrowheads, found in South Africa. 64,000?
70,000 - 35,000 BCE - Neanderthal burials in Europe and Middle East.
67,000 BCE - France, burial shows skulls with trepanation (cutting holes to relieve brain pressure), earliest example of surgery.
65,000 y a - First humans settle Australia.
64,000 y a - Spain, oldest evidence found of cave art (Neanderthal hand).
61,000 y a - South Africa, possible evidence of a Sewing Needle.
60,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
60,000 y a - Evidence of man/Neanderthal using herbal medicine.
55,000 - 40,000 y a - Italy, evidence of Neanderthal using Pine Tree Resin and Beeswax for hafting tools, in cave.
52,000 y a - Last evidence of Denisovans.
52-41,000 y a - France, Neanderthal site, bast (tree inner fiber) yarn found (evidence of basic math and organizational skills for patterns and sets, clothing, nets, tools)
50,000 - 10,000 y a - Mode Four Stone Tools (long blades).
50,000 y a - Austrailia, last evidence of megafauna. Siberia, needle made from bone found with Denisovan cave.
50,000 years ago - End point of development of Gatherer genotype (can survive famine), Teacher (can handle new and different environments, analytical).
45,000 y a - Evidence of Neanderthal and Homo Sapien interbreeding. (Fossil found, DNA tested.)
44,000 y a - Evidence of art found in Indonesia.
44,000-40,000 y a - Europe experiences cold and dry weather, displacing populations.
43-42,000 y a - Germany, oldest musical instruments (flutes) found.
42,000 y a - Australia, skeleton of man suggests Atlatl use, pre-dating earliest evidence; earliest example of cremation found. Spain, small amounts of Natural Gold found in a cave.
40,000 y a - Last evidence of Neanderthal. (Inheritance of "STAT2" gene, immune response. HYAL2 gene, helps skin recover from sunburns.) China, test on body found that ate a lot of fresh water fish.
40,000 - 26,000 y a - Studying toe bones, showed they became smaller and weaker, indicating shoes were worn. Prior to this, shoes were likely bags wrapped around feet to protect from cold.
38,000 BC - First appearance of Mode Five ground stone tools on Japan. (rock was quarried; thin slivers of flint stone, attached to hafts, man is learning the use of a "handle" for tools and "leverage", create adzes, celts, and axes; grinding helps to penetrate trees and was likely discovered when grinding plant matter; found buried with owners; were traded) Lasted till 14,000 BC. (Would not become popular elsewhere until 10,000 BC?) Germany: clay figurine featuring human with lion like appearance, thought to be earliest representation of a deity.
40,000 y a - (Mankind is at the “Forager” level.) Possible example of oldest petroglyphs. Beads found in Lebanon.
35,000 BCE - Europe, earliest examples of "Venus figurines" found buried in graves (some showing they were deliberately broken or stabbed repeatedly); would later spread to rest of Eurasia. Early examples of skulls and long bones showing red ochre, indicating possible relic worship.
35,000 y a - Germany, flute made from a vulture bone found.
31,000 - 27,000 y a - Evidence of Pit Fire (Earthernware) Pottery developing.
30,000-20,000 years ago - Explorer genotype (Ice Age refugees, idiosyncratic, asymmetrical, contrarian mentality)
30-15,000 y a - DNA evidence of Denisovan interbreeding with Homo Sapiens.
30,000 y a - Evidence of starch residue on rocks, indicating where plant matter was pounded and ground. (Would likely be the pre-cursor of developing bread from roots of cattails and ferns. Quern Grinding Stones would spread and gain popularity) Georgia, Flax used as a textile (harvested, dyed, and knotted) found in Dzudzuana Cave. Fertile Crescent, Einkorn wheat harvested in it's wild form. Evidence of man using the Atlatl. Poland: Boomerang carved from mammoth tusk found.
28,000 y a - Europe, oldest evidence of rope.
25,000 - 15,000 BCE - Blood Type A develops in the Fertile Crescent.
27,000 y a - Australia, oldest example of petroglyphs found. Czech Republic, earliest example of "Weaving" of material together to create baskets and basic cloth.
26,000-13,300 y a - Considered "Glacial Maximum", ice sheets extend to the 45th parallel north. (26,500 considered to be maximum glacial reach.)
23,000 - 12,000 y a - Perforated Batons found, made of antler, assumed to be a form of Atlatl that uses a leather strap or string to wrap around the spear and give it a slight spin, arrow or spear thrower (similar to Swiss Arrow). Right and left handed throwers find preference. Most carved with Horses, have one or two holes (one had 8 holes).
23,000 y a - Israel, Ohalo archaeological site, hunter-gatherer society that grew/harvested barley, millet, and various fruits.
21,000-17,000 y a - France, Atlatl's found in caves.
20,000 y a - Height of the Ice Age, sea levels 120 meters (360 feet) lower. Earliest example of a building/house found. Ukraine, Bullroarer (wood on rope that is swung around to create sound over long distance) found.
19,050? - 13,050 y a - Oldest Dryas Period, stadial, abrupt cooling period. Sea levels rose 10-15 m in 500 years.
17,000 BCE - Mesopotamia, Wild Emmer Wheat harvested.
18,000 - 17,500 y a - Siberia, earliest example of a domesticated dog found frozen. Germany, Bow and Arrows found. Early evidence of Darts used.
18,000 y a - Japan, oldest pottery discovered.
15,100 - 14,000 y a - Morocco, earliest example of a cemetery.
15,000 y a - Southern France, cave art depicting possible Musical Bow, Nose Flute; "The Sorcerer," a figure showing human and many animal qualities.
14,500 y a - Oldest example of bread making, Jordan desert.
14,160 - 13,820 y a - Archaeological find: infected tooth partially cleaned out with flint tools.
14,600 - 13,600 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 16-24 m.
14,000? y a - Older Dryas Period, around 200 year cooling period.
13,500 - 8,200 y a - China, wild Rice domestication event occurs.
15-10,000 BCE - Himalayas, development of Blood Type B.
12,000 - 9000 BCE - Mesolithic Era (Middle Stone Age)
11,050 BCE - Syria, attempts at domesticating Rye.
13,000 y a - Greece, evidence of lentils found. Earliest evidence of Amber used in jewelry. Israel, archaeological evidence of beer like gruel for ceremonial purposes found at Haifa. Likely beginning of Slavery.
13,000 - 12,700 y a - Fertile Crescent, archaeological evidence of man corralling and using pigs.
12,900 - 11,700 y a - The Younger Dryas Period, when temperatures went cold instead of warming from the Last Glacial Maximum. Started when a massive fresh water lake in North America flooded into the Atlantic Ocean.
10,000 BCE - Jericho, considered mankind's first town, is established. Buildings of clay and straw, dead buried under homes. (Would reach 70 dwellings by 94,000 BCE.) Chickpeas domesticated. (Mode Five Ground stone tools become popularly used across the Neolithic?) Earliest evidence of the Bottle Gourd being domesticated and used (Africa and Asia variety). Azerbaijan (Caspian Sea), petroglyphs of reed boats. Starting point of Ocarina type flutes.
11,700 y a - Considered the beginning of the Holocene.
9600 BCE - Southern Levant, earliest use of wild Emmer Wheat.
11,500 - 11,000 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 28 m.
11,400 y a - Cyrpress, archaeological evidence of pigs (indicating they had been domesticated and brought from the mainland).
9400 - 9200 BCE - Jordan Valley, Fig trees found, indicating earliest agriculture since these trees could not reproduce.
9130 - 7370 BCE - SE Turkey, Gobekli Tepe, oldest known worship location.
9000 BCE - Syria, oldest (Saddle) Quern found. Mesopotamia, Copper first used.
9000 - 3300 BCE - Neolithic Era, roughly. Time period of when man has begun herding, before using bronze.
11,000 - 9,000 y a - Mesopotamia, domestication of Sheep; Rammed Earth construction technique developed.
11,000-4,000 years ago - Warrior genotype (farmers, soldiers, inventors); Nomad genotype (life upon a horse, can handle different environments, good immune system)
11 or 10,000 y a - Last Ice Age ends.
8800 BCE - Emmer Wheat spreads beyond the Levant.
8700 BCE - Iraq, Copper pendant.
8500 BCE - Domestication of Barley. Domestication of peas occurs around this time. Turkey, Beer production found at Gobekli Tepe. Domestication of Cattle from the Aurochs (two separate populations, one in Mesopotamia, the other Pakistan). Oregon, oldest pair of shoes found made from bark twine. Oats possibly start to be harvested, crop mirrors wheat (is like a weed).
10,300 - 8,700 y a - China, Millet harvested.
10,200 - 9,500 y a - Emmer Wheat domesticated(?).
10,000 - 7,000 y a - Archaeological evidence of boats.
8000 BCE (10,000 years ago) - Palestine, archaeological evidence of pastoralism. Pre-Pottery Neolithic people in the Fertile Crescent form perfectly smooth stone vases. Iran, Goat domestication. Believed to be when primitive dairy-cheese making began. Flax cultivation. China, Quern Grinding Stones.
78-5,000 y a - SE Turkey, Einkorn Wheat grown and domesticated.
9,500 y a - Cyprus, earliest evidence of cat domestication. SE Anatolia, cold-working, annealing, smelting, lost wax casting of Copper.
7500 - 5700 BCE - Anatolia, Catal Hoyuk develops as a spiritual center, found many clay figurines and impressions (feminine, phallic, hunting).
7400 BCE - A monolith ends up submerged in the Straight of Sicily.
7000 BCE - Archaeological evidence for pastoralism in Africa. China: evidence of mead (honey, rice, water fermented) in pottery; evidence of musical instruments. India, first archaeological evidence of Dance, cave art; evidence of dentistry. Armenian Highlands, art depictions of Cymbals. Durum Wheat made thru artificial selection in Europe and Near East. Greece, earliest evidence of grain silos. Turkey, Catal Hoyuk, art depiction of a Slinger.
7000 - 6600 BCE - China, domestication of Soy beans.
7000 - 6000 BCE - Turkey, domestication of Bitter Vetch. (Too bitter for human consumption without being boiled several times, has been found to be great for cattle feed.)
6500-3800 BCE - Ubaid Period (Mesopotamian citystates rise, evidence of specialized workers, evidence of taxation)
6500 BCE - Turkey, evidence of lead smelting at Catal Hoyuk. (Wrapping the dead in textiles, too.) China, archaeological evidence of Silk. Kosovo, oldest Ocarina found in Europe.
8,200 - 7,600 y a - Sea levels rise rapidly. Linked to North American great fresh water lake (Agassiz, Ojibway) sudden draining into Atlantic Ocean. 8,400 y a?
6050 BCE - Moldova, evidence of man extracting salt from a natural spring.
8,000 y a - Western Europe, white skin first appears. Iran: earliest evidence of irrigation; man starts choosing sheep for their wooliness, not just meat and skin (2-3,000 years later, would start wearing wool). Georgia, earliest evidence of wine. Spain, cave painting shows people collecting honey from a wild hive, using a container to hold. China, Buckwheat cultivated (near Tibetan plateau). Earliest evidence of the Ard Plow used. Mediterranean, Broad (Fava) Beans, Broccoli. Portugal: Almendres Cromlech, begins, aligned to equinox and solstice, occupied for 2,000 years, would become largest complex in Iberian peninsula, equal to other large complexes in Europe. Anatolia: Obsidian polished into mirrors. Spelt Wheat appears. First Stone hafted Axes.
6000 - 3500 BC - Mesopotamia (Sumer), Poppy domesticated.
7500 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? Lasts for 500 or more years.
7500 y a - Earliest example of chickpeas being used. Poland, archaeological evidence of cheese making. Ukraine, Romania, earliest examples of traps used for hunting.
7,000 y a - Earliest example of Dolmen, single chamber tomb, consists of two stones supporting another on top (table design), found in western Europe, would spread and be common 4000 - 3000 BCE in Europe.
6950 - 6440 y a - Papua New Guinea, cultivation of Taro and Yam.
6,500 y a - Croatia, earliest example of an oven found. Slovenia, dental filling made with beeswax.
5600 BCE - Evidence of The Black Sea Flood, turning the fresh water lake into a salt water sea, rose shorelines and displaced populations (source of flood myths in religions).
5500 BCE - Pakistan, evidence of Cotton found in copper beads. Egypt, earliest Combs found (placing a leaf in the teeth can create a primitive sound instrument).
5500-5000 BCE - Serbia, Copper Smelting.
5200 - 4700 BCE - Iran, earliest evidence of a wheel, for pottery, made of stone or clay.
5000 BCE - Iranian plateau, evidence of Bronze made with naturally occurring arsenic. Tin would replace as the major ingredient (and releasing non-toxic vapors) in the late 3000 BCE period. Iran, evidence of wine found, using sealed containers. China, Hemp domestication (smoking was likely cause for spread, Iron Age would use for production); Rammed Earth construction technique. Egypt, Badarian culture starts farming, used boomerangs. Roundels, circular enclosure often with entrances aligned to solstice, would be constructed in Central Europe (Germany, 120-150 altogether). Siberia, oldest carpet found (likely a funeral gift, from Armenia, featured griffons). Mesopotamia: first use of Stamp Seals for government purposes; Rotary Quern milling stones are introduced. Armenia: possible origin of Apricots. Lake Zurich, cultivation of Pear.
4800 BCE - Egypt, early evidence of peas being grown. Cairn of Barnenez, Brittany, England, begins (burial monument and later bronze age use, considered one of the oldest and largest man made structures).
4700 - 4200 BCE - The town of Solnitstata, considered the oldest known settlement in Europe. Built around a salt deposit.
4500 BCE - Indus Valley, irrigation. Wine production reaches Greece. Carnac Stones, Brittany, France; would become large complex of standing stones, menhirs, domens, tumuli (burial mounds, with passage tombs), large rectangle formed by stone.
4500-4000 BCE - China, Investment Casting develops.
4200 - 4000 BCE - Mesopotamia develops true, easy to spin pottery wheels.
4000 BCE - (Mankind has achieved “Farmer status.”) Egyptians start building big Brick structures; manufacturing Papyrus; Gold artifacts. Earliest examples of Kilns. NE Italy, archaeological find of Appleseeds. Sicily, evidence of wine found. Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Horse domestication begins. Thought to be when Cattle were turned into Ox for Draft Animal purposes. Pontic Language Explosion. [People from north of the Caspian and Black Seas migrated around Eurasia, ancestor of western languages. (shared origins with: milk, horses, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, grain, copper, carts, yoke, weaving, mead; patrilineal clans)]. Earliest examples of Viticulture (wine making). Levant, earliest examples of harvesting Olives; start using grain Silos. Art: Earliest depiction of Shoes, Sandals. China: example of a Loom for Silk production; Ramie (similar to flax, requires chemical processing, not as popular, believed to be used for Egyptian mummy wraps). Persia (Iran), Mung Bean domestication?, Chang (precursor to Harp) found on artwork, made with sheep guts. Mesopotamia: Stamp Seals come into use; Mirrors made of Copper; earliest pipes for moving water. Europe, farming reaches northern regions. Anatolia, Silver production.
4000 - 1000 BCE - Ethiopia, Teff is discovered (can feed people and livestock, building material).
6,000 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? (Starting maybe 500 years earlier and ending 500 years later.)
3800 - 3500 BCE - Czech Republic, possible evidence of earliest plowed fields.
5,700 y a - Lolland Island, a blue eyed, dark haired, dark skin woman spits out some Birch Bark gum. Oldest complete human genome extracted. Had Mononucleosis ("kissing disease"). Possible archeological evidence of pit traps used for migrating animal hunting.
3630 BCE - Oldest example of silk fabric found.
5,500 - 4,700 y a - Georgia, tomb found had honey remains on pottery. (This culture could identify Linden, Berry, and Meadow-Flower varieties.)
3500 BCE - City of Uruk: (Mesopotamia) begins outward expansion and influence, later first example of organized warfare (would influence Egyptians to start building pyramids); "Cylinder Seals," a type of noble seal, that can be rolled unto wet clay (would be popular until 1000 BCE). Iraq, Kish Tablet, considered to represent the early transition from pictographic to cuneiform. Mesopotamia, earliest Harps and Lyres found; Gold artifacts. Modern humans settle the western coast of Europe, hunter-gatherers. Egyptians show Cat domestication; Gold Smelting; used a vertical Gnomon as a primitive Sundial? Iran, Beer made from Barley. Armenia, earliest Leather Shoe found. China, Pottery in shape of silkworm indicates earliest example of Sericulture (silk worm production).
3500 - 3350 BCE - Mesopotamia, earliest evidence of wheeled vehicles. Indus Valley civilization uses Stamp Seals with a type of script.
3400 BCE (5,400 years ago) - First metal casting. France, Cow skull showing Trepanation found.
5,400 -5,100 y a - Itzi the Iceman dies in the mountains of Northern Italy. Had a copper axe. Earliest evidence of tattoos. Shoes made from two types of animal skin (bear and deer). Arsenic residue in his hair.
3300 BCE - Egypt, tomb paintings show people Dancing.
3200 BCE - Examples of using symbols to represent real life objects (would go to form written language). Ireland, construction begins on Newgrange, largest passage tomb in Europe, aligned to winter solstice. Egypt, Bead made of Meteoric Iron found.
3100 - 2900 BCE - Jemdet Nasr period, following fall of Uruk, would be known as establishing Cuneiform as a proper language.
3100 BCE - Upper and Lower Egypt unified. Mesopotamia, likely evidence of the earliest Lute type device.
3000 BCE - Onset of Bronze. Mesopotamia, Irrigation; Glass Beads appear (possible side effect of making metal); possible earliest Iron working. Sumer, Medical text found on tablet, believed oldest ever found. Egypt, first record of a Doctor named, Imhotep; Antimony harvested from rock and made into eye makeup; earliest evidence of domestic Donkeys in the south. Dromedary Camels likely domesticated in Somalia at this time. (Camel hair can be harvested for shelter and clothing, outer guard hairs make for water proof coats. Camel milk readily turns into yogurt. To turn into butter requires a clarifying agent and extended process.) Chicken reaches Europe from Asia. England, earliest Stone Circles found. Slovakia, Romania, earliest chainmail found. Sheep chosen for wooly coat, not long hair. China, Clay Bells found. India, River Buffalo domesticated (water buffalo); Jute grown for fiber (burlap). Northern Iran, earliest examples of Trumpets. SE Asia, earliest records of Radish.
2800 BCE - Solid evidence of plowed fields. China, Copper smelting discovered. Sumer, Battle Wagons (4 wheels, likely evolved into a Battle Cart, and later into Chariot).
2700 BCE - Chinese treatise on health. 40 kinds identified.
2650 BCE - Egypt, dental work found.
2630-10 BCE - Egypt, Pyramid of Djoser constructed by Imhotep, considered first.
2600 - 1900 BCE - Indus Valley, Stoneware Pottery (meaning fired at 1000 degrees Celsius), would become a major industry.
2560 BCE - Great Pyramid of Giza completed.
2500 BCE - Evidence of The Amber Road, trade route from the Baltic Sea to Mediterranean Sea. E Iran, Bactrian Camels domesticated. Iraq, "Lyres of Ur," considered world's oldest stringed instruments. Peru, oldest Sling ever found. Egypt, earliest depiction of a Khopesh (sword).
2500 - 2000 BCE - Mali, domestication of Pearl Millet. Turkey, Meteoric Iron dagger.
2400 BCE - Sumer, description of Prostitution and a Brothel-Temple to Fertility Goddess.
2300 BCE - Mesopotamia, Urukagina of Lagash, considered the earliest Law Code. (Widows and orphans exempt from taxes, state pays for funeral expenses, the rich must pay in silver and cannot force the poor against will, checked power of priests, protect from usury, abolished polyandry). Iran, Quince (fruit). China, oldest Gnomon (painted stick that casts a shadow for sundial purpose).
2200 BCE - China, first known tax, using salt.
2200-2000 BCE - Turkey, Iron Smelting.
2100 - 2050 BCE - City of Ur: Earliest written Code of Law discovered. References Butter. (Fines for bodily harm, references murder, robbery, adultery, rape. Two classes of people: free and slave.)
4000 - 3000 y a - Mesopotamia, earliest Scissors (shear, spring type). India, Mung Bean domesticated.
2000 BCE - Murals show horses pulling chariots. Horses become common in western Europe. England, Great Orme Mine started, would become largest copper mine in region (most productive between 1700 - 1400 BCE), used bone and stone tools. China, Bells made out of metal (Bellfounding); domestication of the Swamp Buffalo (water buffalo). Ghana, earliest evidence of Cowpea (black eyed pea). India, Canola/Rapeseed. Egypt, Lupin Beans. Greece, Kale grown. Pakistan, Harappa, earliest sanitation in housing.
1800 BCE - Egypt, medical text on gynecological issues; Safflower for pigment. India, Iron working.
1754 BCE - Code of Hammurabi (recognized Prostitution and gave women protection and inheritance; theorized that a fertility goddess had a temple that offered sex workers).
1700 - 1200 BCE - (Late Bronze Age) 8 societies in Middle East: Aegean, Egyptian, Hittite, Canaanite, Cypriot, Mitanni, Assyrian, Babylonian. Considered a "globalized world system." Next time this would occur is today.
1700 BCE - The "Mari Letters" reference Minoan society, King Hammurabi.
1650 BCE - Greece, earliest chariots found.
1628 BCE - Island of Thera/Santorini experiences huge volcanic eruption, possibly causing a tsunami thru eastern Europe.
1600-1500 BCE - Greece, Helmet formed of boar tusks found.
1500 BCE - Modern Trumpet design found in eastern Mediterranean. India, Pigeon Pea domesticated. Egypt, Mercury found in tombs; archaeologists find earliest Sundials found. China, Water Clocks.
1400 BCE - Syria, Hurrian Songs, cuneiform music tablet in Ugarit. Greece, oldest body armor found, made of bronze, Dendra Panoply. China, Meteoric Iron axeheads. Art representation of Scale Mail in Egypt. Art: representation of Shields.
1350 BCE - Turkey, Hittites chronicle Egyptian prisoners of war bringing "the plague.”
1300 BCE - Uluburun Shipwreck, off coast of Turkey, had 300 sixty pound copper ingots (10 tons), 1 ton of tin, and tin objects and ingots of colored glass (blue, rose, brown). From Cypress/Minoa.
1300? - 900? BCE - Eastern Mediterranean experiences a 300? year drought. (Could also be: Cypress 1200- 850. Syria 1250-1187. Galilee 1250-1100)
1279 BCE - Battle of Qadesh (Egypt vs Hittites).
1200 BCE (3,200 years ago) - Onset of Iron smelting. Earliest Camel saddles appear. Last appearance of Megaliths. India, earliest evidence of Firewalking.
1200 BCE - Eastern Mediterranean civilization collapse. Drought in Greece. Earthquake series.
1188-1177 BCE - Egypt suffers invasions from "The Sea People."
1185 BCE - Syria, Ugarit Letter, Famine.
1140? BCE - Ramses 6th, mummy found to have small pox. No record of people dying from small pox.
1100 BCE - Phoenicians establish nation. Europe, Iron Age.
1100? BCE - Earth experiences a cold temperature period?
1100-750 BCE - Egypt, Iron Smelting.
1070 BCE - Egyptian mummy found with Silk in hair, earliest evidence of Silk Road.
1000 BCE - Early Cuneiform script (late stages, still pictograph in nature). Bactria, Barbat (primitive lute). Egypt, Kenaf is grown for fibers, leaves can be eaten by animals and humans (similar to Jute and Hemp; rope, rough fabric, sails). Mediterranean, Cabbage domesticated. China, Iron Age.
930 BCE - Camel bones found in Arabian peninsula. Jordan, earliest Bloomery for Iron working found.
800 - 600 BCE - Ethiopia, Sorghum Wheat begins to be harvested.
800 BCE - Considered the beginning of Ancient Greece, after the Mycenae Civilization. China, Bloomeries used.
700-500 BCE - The Illiad composed.
700 BCE - Turkey, first Coins in Lydia. Assyria, first equipment recognized as a Saddle for a Horse.
600 BCE - Earliest example of a Steel Sword.
600-400 BCE - Ancient Greece rise of scientific inquiry and philosophy
550 BCE - The Illiad written down.
500 BCE - Camels used in warfare. Persians use kettle drums for military maneuvers, frighten enemies. Greece, Grape Syrup, early form of sweetener and preservative. Blackberries consumed around Europe. Spain, Disk Quern developed.
400 BCE - The "Celts/Gaeil" settle Ireland.
396 BCE - Olympics, horn blowing competitions.
314 BCE - China, first mention of Sweet Orange.
298 BCE - Foot powered Loom.
200 BCE - China starts making paper.
100 CE - Sorghum Wheat domesticated. Mediterranean, Cauliflower.
400 CE - Bellfounding comes to Europe.
800 CE - Start of most recent Interglacial peak period.
1200 CE (800 years ago) - First Cannon foundry. Europe, first Paper mills.
1250 - 1850 CE - Earth experiences a small Ice Age.
1500 CE - Concept of Religion becomes clearly defined.
1650 CE - Pendulum Clock.
1750 CE - France, Strawberry grown in garden. Barbados, Grapefruit.
1760 CE - Bat guano begins showing increased levels of lead, indicating the Industrial Revolution.
1880 CE (140 years ago), Carnegie steel erects skyscrapers.
submitted by SkyAnimal to JoeRoganpodcast [link] [comments]


2020.09.22 02:02 GammaWhamma MIND-BLOWING THEORY? [Spoilers]

This contains major spoilers for both Subnautica and Subnautica: Below Zero. Read at your own risk.
I'm about to blow your mind: The Sea Emperor Leviathan is the "bridges" part of the Twisty Bridges in Below Zero.
Firstly, the Crater of the first game will be hereafter called “Site A”, and Site Zero in Below Zero will be referred to as “Site B”.
INTRODUCTION
Allow me to explain. At the end of the first game, you help the Sea Emperor's young to hatch, and it dies afterward. It says, "Perhaps next we meet, I will be an ocean current, carrying seas to a new land. Or a creature so small, it sees the gaps between the grains of sand." This tells us that the concept of reincarnation is not only canon in Subnautica, but it's something that the Sea Emperor seems to actually believe in. At the end of the game, it says, "Now you go among the stars, and I fall among the sand. We are different. But we go...together." Remember that, because it's going to come back in a moment.
THE SEA EMPEROR: OVERVIEW
Let's talk about the Sea Emperor itself. The incredible thing is that it possesses telepathy and can communicate with Ryley Robinson in his native tongue (All of the audio is in English with an British accent, and Robinson is a surname that originated in England, so we can assume he's probably from the UK). What’s more is that the Sea Emperor isn't just capable of communication -- it can understand what is happening around it and what others' motivations are. The Sea Emperor possesses logic (knows it cannot logically break out of the Containment Facility), existential/spiritual thinking (it brings up reincarnation), and naturalist intelligence (it knows how nature works, how the ecosystem functions, and how it connects with nature). This is extreme intelligence, likely greater than that of a human.
According to the databank, the Sea Emperor Leviathan "moved in small herds around the planet's ocean trenches...family size would be strictly limited by available food supply." So, when food supply was scarce, family members would die off. This makes logical and biological sense.
Speaking of biology: According to the wiki, "most known fauna species on Planet 4546B are simultaneous hermaphrodites...two parents are still required to fertilize the eggs once laid, making it sexual reproduction...The only one of the complex fauna species on the planet known to be an exception to this rule is the Sea Emperor Leviathan." So, the Sea Emperor is asexual in terms of reproduction. But why is that important?
Let's talk about the Emperor's age, shall we? The Specimen in the Primary Containment Facility is roughly 2600 years old, which is, according to the PDA, significantly past its natural lifespan. But what exactly is the lifespan of a Sea Emperor Leviathan? Well, let's make some inferences from the game as well as from biology class.
An interesting thing about species that reproduce asexually is that some -- such as sea urchins -- can actually switch to sexual reproduction under stressful circumstances. This provides an advantage to the species in that it provides individuals with new combinations of rearranged chromosomes, which increases diversity. What this means is that if their species/colony/herd is in danger of dying out, they can switch to sexual reproduction in order to give a genetic shuffle and give your group a better chance at survival. And it's not just limited to invertebrates: Komodo dragons switch between sexual and asexual reproduction depending on the circumstances, making them the largest creature on Earth that does so. However, only female Komodo dragons can do it, and it only produces female offspring. In Subnautica: Below Zero -- at least in an earlier version of the story -- there was a Sea Emperor Leviathan with a male voice. A male Sea Emperor Leviathan. This means that the Sea Emperor from the first game reproduced sexually instead of asexually, likely caused by ecological stress from the Emperors' food sources dying out from the Kharaa outbreak.
THE SEA EMPEROR’S AGE
But what does this have to do with the Sea Emperor's age? Well, the Sea Emperor was brought into captivity by the Precursors roughly a thousand years before the events of Subnautica. So it would have been about 1600 years old at the time. The eggs that the Precursors managed to grab along with the specimen were the result of sexual reproduction, which means that the Sea Emperor was in danger of dying. The PDA hints that this may have been because food sources were becoming scarce due to the Kharaa outbreak, which would make sense — The Sea Emperor apparently feeds upon micro-organisms filtered from the water. Small organisms such as plankton and krill are indeed susceptible to bacterial infections, which can cause their numbers to decline. So, there we have it — the reason the Sea Emperor was dying was because its food source was dying out.
But that’s not true. If you go to the crater’s edge, your PDA will register a report saying that “the ecology of the trench surrounding the crater supports only two kinds of life: microscopic, and leviathan class.” Ghost leviathans exist in the crater’s edge, and they feed exclusively on microscopic organisms. If the crater edge has enough microscopic organisms to support three of these massive creatures, then there’s enough to support a population of Sea Emperors. So, this means that the microscopic food sources are not in danger of dying out.
This means that the Sea Emperor was near the end of its lifespan, and was not dying due to starvation. This puts the natural lifespan of the Sea Emperor leviathan at around 1600 years.
BACK TO THE THEORY
Remember the quote I told you to remember? “Now you go among the stars, and I fall among the sand.” Initially, this may just be referring to the fact that the Sea Emperor is dying — literally falling among the sand in her containment — but I want to take this a bit further.
Sand is created when seawater grinds up pieces of rock and coral into tiny little grains. The sand created this way is dark and rocky. But the finer sand that you see in tropical areas is actually created by a fish called the parrotfish. It’s a fish with a beak that grinds up pieces of coral — the main part of its diet. But get this: when the coral goes through its digestive tract, it’s excreted as fine, white sand. That’s right — the tropical sand you see in your vacation to Hawai’i is indeed Parrotfish droppings.
Notice what other places have that fine golden sands? Only BOTH ISLANDS in Subnautica’s Site A (where the first game takes place). Furthermore, that fine sand may not be at Site B (where Below Zero takes place), or at least on land — but look at the seafloor in almost every biome, and you’ll see that same fine sand. The fish that feed on coral in these areas excrete it as the sand you see in-game.
But why is that important? Be patient — I’m getting there.
We know that there’s a current that goes directly from Site A to Site B. This is made apparent by Marguerit Maida riding the corpse of a Reaper Leviathan from the Degasi base in the Grand Reef of Site A to the Lilypad Islands of Site B. Not only is that mentioned in the wiki, but she also has the Reaper’s skeleton inside her base. You see Reaper skeletons elsewhere as well; the Lost River, the Lava Lakes…you even see the skeletons of Sea Dragons and other massive leviathans, one of which dates back to 3 million years ago!
But notice how one skeleton is missing from all that — we never see a Sea Emperor Leviathan skeleton. Sure, we never see the skeleton of the Ghost Leviathan, but that’s because it possesses no skeletal structure — it’s just an outer membrane protecting the muscular innerbody. What about the Reefback? Well, it also seems to possess no skeletal structure. When Reefbacks die, they most likely sink to the ground and become one with the land, supporting an ecosystem with the reef that made its home on its back.
But the slightly humanoid shape of the Sea Emperor Leviathan would necessitate a skeleton, especially since the Precursors were studying vertebrae in their research facilities. We never see a Sea Emperor skeleton. This might be because they usually died out along the crater edge, but with what the Sea Emperor says at the end of the game, it’s more likely that there is a form of reincarnation at play here.
If you need any more convincing, look no further than the Imgur link here: https://imgur.com/a/fmA76dw
The design is so similar, almost too similar to be entirely coincidental. The banded parts of the coral bridges are so similar to the tentacles of the Sea Emperor Leviathan, and with the blue, barnacle-like growths on the bottom…there’s just no convincing me otherwise.
Why did I come up with this theory? Well, it may be possible that this is actually cannon, maybe coming up as some sort of plot twist in Below Zero. If that’s the case, I want credit for calling it!
All jokes aside, this is just something that I found interesting. Thoughts?
submitted by GammaWhamma to subnautica [link] [comments]


2020.09.21 21:06 travel-notes-oliver Biarritz in summer

Biarritz in summer
The city of Biarritz is located on the Bay of Biscay, in the 64 department of France, called the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. It is located along the Basque coast at the Cape of St. Martin, closely adjacent to Anglet and Bayonne, and has been a health resort in France for more than one century – in the “beautiful era” it was a place of rest and treatment for the aristocracy, now – modern high-ranking officials. Thanks to “right” waves of the Atlantic ocean Biarritz is a renowned surfing center.

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The history of prosperity and popularity of this area can be associated with the names of two outstanding women – Alienor of Aquitaine and Empress Eugenia. When Alienor married Henry Plantagenet, king of England in the 12th century, the English built the Fortress Farragus next to a fishing village. When this country was appreciated by Empress Eugenia, a popular resort for the aristocracy arose here. The traces of the English fortress have not survived to this day, but there are many sights associated with Eugenia. For example, the most emblematic building on the shore – Villa of Eugenia, originally built as the empress’s rest and reception house, is now called the Hotel du Palais (now under reconstruction), and is used to accommodate the wealthy public. The Church of Saint Eugenia also beautifies the Biarritz coastline and is a local sight.

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The main local attraction, in a manner of speaking, is surfing. Particular waves arising due to the specific bottom configuration and the processes of the Atlantic Ocean that are difficult to understand, make it possible to relatively easily master mysteries of this sport. For a good wave, it’s necessary to know the time of high and low tide, and all local surfers have it timetable.
In practice, in order to surf “from scratch”, it takes a week of classes at a surf school. Our group mastered cherished skills just on the date indicated. Although, personally, this type of activity does not suit me, and with great enthusiasm I visited coastal cafes. I also photographed schoolchild surfers.
One of the emblematic sights is the local lighthouse, built in 1834 on Cape Saint-Martin. You can mount it to appreciate the stunning view of the Central Beach, as well as take a photo at the observation deck located at its foot. Hotel Le Regina is nearby, in the restaurant of which you can enjoy tasting dishes prepared by an eminent chef. It’s suitable for gourmets, of course. We were not lucky at all – at that moment there was no eminent chef, we had to suffer with the usual menu 🙂

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We prepared for this our visit to Biarritz and booked a sightseeing tour with a private guide through a special resource – Excurzilla. We learned a lot of useful things (in just a couple of hours!), looked at all the most famous places in the city, and in general, had a great time. For example, we became0 familiar with the history of the emergence of the Russian Church, located (oh, miracle!) on Russian street of Biarritz. In general, I have to say that since the 19th century wealthy Russians have chosen this city and the region where the Russian Church is located, now a respectable place, studded with luxurious villas. The villa is still located here in which the great Russian composer Igor Stravinsky once lived. And now, according to stories of the guide, Russian residents occupy more than one villa in this region.
The history of the settlement, in the place of which modern Biarritz grew up, is closely connected with whaling. And to this day, a whale is depicted on the city’s coat of arms. Poor animals nearly disappeared from the face of the earth – I did not even think that until recently streets of European cities were illuminated by whale oil lamps. Horror! We can say that new technologies (gas and electricity) have saved poor animals from complete extermination. Old Port of Biarritz was exactly the place from where whale hunters set off on their shaky little boats to stun an unfortunate whale with an accurate blow and pull it on shore. Now we cannot say that such horrors were happening in this reputable place.

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The oldest street in Biarritz – Gambetta has maintained its charm, showing restored old buildings. One of which is the old city market, where it’s possible to still buy fresh fruits, groceries and everything else, and in the evening public life flourishes around. A large number of cafes, restaurants and bars are concentrated around the old market – perhaps not something else, but the French love (and know how) to eat.
There is also an unremarkable clothing store called 64 on this street. Another tourist would not attach it any significance, but for the locals it’s a symbol of national identity to a certain degree, – this is the number of the department of France, in which Biarritz is located. In general, instead of souvenirs, you can buy some clothes with the symbol of this brand.

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Gambetta street leads to the former town hall square, where now the reorientated town hall building is not at once recognizable, a bank, shops and other organizations are located here. We can say that it’s the very center of the old city. However, one historical place still remains on it – it’s the Miremont cafe. Even now, there you can taste unusually delicious desserts, custard (a rarity in Europe) tea and a huge number of variations of coffee service. Both with stunning views, local desserts in surroundings of the historic interior of this cafe will help you get your impression of why Biarritz was so loved by hedonists of the past.

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In addition to the aforementioned Hotel du Palais (one of the best hotels in Biarritz), a casino building is also on the Central Beach, which also houses a public swimming pool (not without reason the city has a history of a balneotherapeutic health resort), as well as cafes, restaurants and shops. Since it’s quite difficult to swim in these places (Atlantic Ocean, even so!) and often cold, beaches here are more convenient for promenade. In general, the guide told a quite large number of stories about ships that could not cope with peculiarities of the Bay of Biscay, the most difficult in the way of navigation, and sunk in the local waters even in recent history.

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By the way, this is why Biarritz does not have a yacht berth and corresponding infrastructure – during the storm season, waves gain enormous sizes. For centuries, local authorities have tried to protect the city bays with the help of breakwaters, but it did not work out to build properly – the ocean breaks all attempts to establish artificial restrictions for it.
For example, a representative story is associated with one of the sights of Biarritz – cliff of the Holy Virgin. In the 19th century, a natural rock at this place was yet broken by order of Napoleon III to arrange a port-refuge, however, it was not possible to install full-fledged breakwaters. All in all, a statue of the Holy Virgin was installed here, making this a tourist place, by building a bridge by the Eiffel atelier to the rock from the shore, starting from the Museum of the Sea.
submitted by travel-notes-oliver to u/travel-notes-oliver [link] [comments]


2020.09.17 13:02 closeprotections Close Protection London Close Protection Services London

Close protection – is a concept that has been known for ages – it has been with us since early days of humankind and now its condition is more than satisfactory. Since time immemorial, people have tried to protect their wealth, assets, as well as their own health, life, and welfare. By means of the transfer of gathered goods, wealthy individuals have been paying other parties to protect them, their families, and possessions from others. As a general rule, young, notably strong, and grim-looking individuals have been considered perfectly suitable for such a job. The idea behind such a choice has been to scare away a potential adversary by taking advantage of the very looks of the guard. The aforementioned state of affairs has been observed for the consecutive ages. Wealthy landowners and kings created their own trusted guards (in ancient times and during the medieval age, those were troops designated to protect the authorities; later on, they were transformed into elite soldiers). Aside from serving representative and managerial purposes, such individuals were required to take care of their master and his beloved ones. In the 11th century England, during the Battle of Hastings, King Harold assembled a group of troops to protect his life and widely understood health condition. One may consider them to be the ancestors of modern bodyguards. As both civilization and society progressed, there were an increasing number of various organizations and people. Therefore, the risk of attack was significantly higher. Numerous authorities attempted to discourage potential aggressors from committing a crime by introducing severe forms of punishment. It must be noted, however, that there was still the question if it was enough to protect high authorities and the wealthy from the effects of outside attacks. The protection-oriented market has been developing to be – at some point – dominated by professional soldiers. The said progression has made it possible for police officers to investigate and deal with common, less dangerous crimes only. Together with technical revolution and the increasing social awareness, the number of citizens not satisfied with the current order skyrockets. It is likely to cause radical groups aiming at the change of the existing ruling paradigm to occur. This in turn may lead to anarchy and the increase in people willing to put their antisocial theories and plans into effect. The latter may start from sabotaging the work of others and demolishing valuable devices, but it may also end up in killings. If such a thing happens, one may openly talk about terrorism. The unusual social situation boosts the demand for personal protection. Both the army and police focus on securing the wellbeing of those of high position in the country. The rest of the threatened society must protect itself. The demand identified above has given rise to a new profession – a security guard. In the past, it was performed in a more or less organized fashion and that is why the effectiveness of arising task achievement varied. The attempt on Tsar’s Alexander the Second life on 1st March 1881 is a perfect exemplification of the formulated thesis. The ruler in question was attacked by the members of Narodnaya Volya at 2:15 P.M. A bomb was thrown under the carriage, but its explosion did not harm either the tsar or the horses. Alexander the Second, together with his companion including secret police representatives, started to assess damages. It was a mistake. At 2:20 P.M, yet another bomb was detonated. Its accuracy was notably higher as it managed to severely injure the tsar. He died relatively quickly, even with professional care he was under. At this point, it must be indicated that the demand for close protection increases. However, the perception of it is in a significant number of cases rather faulty, leading to pitiful outcomes. As it was hundreds of years earlier, modern people tend to hire grim musclemen to protect them, disregarding the fact that their intellectual level and possessed knowledge are negligible. Formerly, a test had to be passed in order for a person to be considered a bodyguard. Unfortunately, it does not hold true anymore. On numerous occasions, we can observe security guards stylized to look like stats of action movies, with the lack of intelligence written all over their faces. To give them justice, such people may also perform exceptionally well – up to the time they encounter a real attack. Unprofessional guards may be employed to protect rock stars or boxers. Real bodyguards of today are, however, highly skilled and motivated. They are trained to prevent rather than to counteract, as it may be too late in the latter case. Such people are capable of estimating potential risk and juxtaposing it with the resources at their disposal that may minimize it. Modern security guards are physically active, as well as skilled in giving first aid and driving a car defensively. They can fight without using any weapon – especially by taking advantage of psychology and persuasion. Such people are proficient in at least two languages and are characterized by an above-average intelligence level. The described model of a security guard is perfectly suited to current conditions and the needs of individuals hiring them.

VIP close protection over the world – organizations specializing in personal protection. One of the most famous and at the same time – the oldest organized bodies dealing with close protection was created in the 19th century. It was the American United States Secret Service. The USSS was created in 1865 as the US Treasury Law Enforcement Agency. Secret Service is the oldest national agency focusing entirely on investigations. Initially, their only task was to protect the economic structure of the country by means of preventing governmental cheques and bonds from being counterfeited. The mission was followed up to 1901, when president William McKinley was attacked in Buffalo (NY state). The assault resulted in appointing the Secret Service by the US Congress to protect the newly elected president, Theodore Roosevelt. In 1906, the Congress finally adopted the act on the responsibility of the Secret Service for the safety of the White House. Since 1950, the protection has been extended from presidents and first ladies only to vice-presidents as well. Before the murder of John F. Kennedy in 1963 and senator Robert F. Kennedy in 1968, the Secret Service had been a relatively small organization, employing as many as 284 agents. The discussed events translated directly into its rapid development. Currently, it is stated that over 5000 employees work for the Secret Service. Separate branches of the organization are located all over the United States, in Puerto Rico, and in other places all over the world (Paris, Lyon, London, Bonn, Rome, Milano, Hong Kong, Montreal, Lefkosa, Bogota, and Manila). The representatives of the organization are both secret agents (serving protection and investigation-related roles), as well as uniformed units responsible for the safety of the White House and diplomatic outposts. They maintain law and order by means of the network of both foot and motorized patrols, as well as of fixed posts. Such people also support other branches of the Secret Service. A wide scope of professional is also employed therein – those are electronics, engineers, communication experts, protection-related professionals, and IT workers. The Secret Service protects the president with his family, vice-president, elected vice-president, candidates for the said posts (from the 120th day before the elections onwards), former president, his children up to 16, as well as heads of other states staying in the USA in order to realize international missions. The unit of the Secret Service liable for taking care about the safety of the president in the White House fulfills its duties in identical uniforms. Due to the said fact, the Secret Service is sometimes referred to as the Uniformed Division. Its tasks also include the protection of president’s mansions, diplomatic outposts in Washington, and places alike located within the borders of the USA.

Another known formation is the Swiss Guard (Latin: Cohors Helvetica) which was for the very first time gathered on 22nd January 1506 by the then pope – Julius II. Its major aim was to protect the spiritual successor of Saint Peter and his palace. The pope wanted to grant himself protection from the enemies and avoid a political murder. In 1512, the Guard secured Vatican against French soldiers. The Defendants of the Church, as the representatives of the discussed formation were also called, had to face the biggest trail while taking care of pope Clemens VII during the invasion of Roman emperor, Charles V. The boldness, discipline, and resourcefulness of the representatives of the Guard made it possible to save the life of the pope, even though about 600 bold men died in the process. To commemorate the event, a solemn vow of the newly appointed guards takes place every year on 6th May. Each of the Swiss guards-to-be holds a banner in his left hand and raises his right hand with the thumb and two other fingers in an upright position (it is the symbol of the Holy Trinity). Then, the new soldiers promise to protect the pope and – to die in his defense if necessary. The representatives of the Swiss Guard are chosen from men between the age of 19 and 25 living in one of Swiss cantons (basing on contracts with Zurich and Lucerne). Each of them has to be at least 174 cm (5 feet and a half inch) tall and be an unmarried practicing Catholic (according to a special letter issued by the local bishop). Candidates for the service are properly trained, including teaching them how to use firearms, side arms, as well as how to defend themselves and establish proper contacts with other people. One of the items of the list is the proper usage of halberd. Currently, the number of soldiers in the Guard is estimated to circulate around 120, including officers, junior, and senior soldiers. They serve in the formation from two to twenty-five years. It must be also indicated at this point that officers and senior sergeants may be granted by the pope the right to enter into a holy matrimony. Aside from their characteristic outfit, soldiers are additionally equipped with halberds and Renaissance swords – those are the symbols of formation’s tradition. Nowadays, they are also fitted with firearms, tear gas, and excellent communication-oriented devices. With its almost five hundred years of heritage, the Swiss Guard is one of the oldest active defense-oriented groups in the world. One may assume that it will last until Switzerland and the Catholic Church exist.

Yet another example of a close protection-focused formation is the Cedrug Order, the major task of which is to take care about the ruler of Tibet – Dalai Lama. It comprises of national spiritual authorities who organized themselves in a form of an order. Thanks to strict upbringing, their physical strength is much higher than the one of secular officials. Therefore, the former are the most trusted soldiers caring about the safety of the leader of the nation. Cedurg School is located in the left wing of Potala – the palace of Dalai Lama, which is in turn situated in the Holy City of Lhasa (eastern Tibet, Kyitsu river valley). Every Tibet citizen is allowed to enroll to the school, but only chosen ones are granted the privilege to join the Order. For several hundred years, there have been a limited number of monks allowed, namely – 175. Only selected candidates have been worthy enough to defend the powerful Dalai Lama. Those are especially bold, tall, and muscular men. The representatives of the Order earned their name in 1959, when they protected the king of Tibet against Chinese adversaries.

One of the biggest organizations in the world established to consociate and train bodyguards is the International Bodyguard Association (IBA). The IBA was established in 1957 in Paris by major Lucien Victor Ott. Major Ott had been closely connected to the French Foreign Legion in Algeria since his early childhood. He had been born and raised in the said country. In 1947, he joined the French Special Forces and took part in France-Indochina war. Furthermore, he was the participant of the battle of Dien-Bien Phu that ended with the defeat of the French forces. He was being injured and captured by Vietminh. After a bold escape, he decided to join forces with the French Military Intelligence (Deuxieme Bureau). Major Lucien Ott got famous due to, inter alia, perfect securing of president Charles de Gaulle against the OAS terrorist organization. Thanks to him, 30 prepared attacks were foiled, 11 of which were aimed directly at the head of the state. After the death of the creator of a modern bodyguard profile, major Ott, one of his students – James G. Shortt took care of the management of the IBA. As a young man, he had joined a cadet school. Later on, he had become landing operation troops officer and a member of the elite SAS (Special Air Service) unit. Moreover, during his service, he also taught soldiers in Afghanistan the art of Mujahedeen war. Currently, he teaches security guards, police officers, and soldiers all over the world in the IBA branches. The main aim of the organization is to properly prepare bodyguards-to-be to properly perform their duties. It is not an entity employing such individuals, but those who have presented exceptional skills may become members of royal, diplomatic, or personal guards recommended by the IBA. Coaches being the representatives of the organization trained bodyguards in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, as well as helped during the Baltic Crisis between 1989 and 1991. The qualifications of the International Bodyguard Association are exceptional, international, and backed by the documentation concerning the organization of training sessions for the military, governmental authorities, police, and private bodyguards all over the world. Such undertakings have been continuously performed since 1957. The IBA also operates and trains willing individuals in Poland. Its branch was established in the said country in 1992. The basic training offered to candidates includes 60 hours of comprehensive preparation divided into six consecutive days. After its completion, the candidates are required to undergo the so-called refresher once a year. It is one of the conditions of the membership in the IBA.

Another training organization worth mentioning is the ESI - Executive Security International. It must be highlighted that it is one of the biggest and most appreciated American companies oriented towards training personal protection guards. Its second name is as follows: Bodyguard Training Academy for Executive, Dignitary and Celebrity Protection. The ESI was formed at the beginning of the 80s by Bob Duggan – martial arts expert and master in Hwarang Do. Its creation had been preceded by the establishment of the very first bodyguard training program by the Martial Arts Academy in Aspen, Colorado. The ESI, being one of the USA’s private schools, offers its students over 2000 hours of education with regard to protection, investigation, data gathering, company and individual security, etc. The training unit of the organization is situated high up in the mountains and is run by skilled professionals. Fun fact – film writer, Tracy Keenan Wynn, cooperates with the ESI. His preeminent task has been to create scenarios of situational exercises. While writing them, the said individual takes advantage of real life situations and attacks, such as assaults on Aldo Moro, John Paul the Second, kidnapping of Hans Martin Schleyer by the RAF (Red Army Faction), and scenarios alike. The ESI collaborates with corporations operating in the close protection branch of industry, as well as with the police and military. The organized training sessions are top secret. No journalists are allowed to enter the Aspen unit. Due to the fact that the ESI is a private school, it may provide professional training to civil, police-related, and military institutions all over the world.

The citizens of Israel have never had the chance to feel safe in their country. The issue of safety has been always treated seriously there. Aside from a constant Israel-Arab world conflict threat, the Israelis have been the subjects of terrorist attracts, both within the borders of their country and outside it. Jews and Americans are most frequent victims of operations organized by highly skilled terrorist groups. Taking into account the impact the Russian mafia has on Israel, the amount of care put on widely understood safety is fully justified. The Israeli Special Forces protect their citizens by means of intelligence and security-oriented undertakings. They host training sessions in various organizations preparing bodyguards, providing the adepts with the experience gained during the service. Most famous units of the said kind in Israel are undoubtedly the ISA - International Security Academy and the ISS - International Security School.

ISA is an international organization established and managed by former leaders, police instructors, and special service members. The very first unit of the ISA was formed in Latvia as a training and advising agency for both governmental and private security guards belonging to the Baltic States and the countries of the former USSR. The fact that the ISA is not exclusively Israeli in character is proved by the figure of the organization chairman, major Urlich Wegener – the creator and very first leader of German Border Control Service called GSG 9. The team of instructors and coaches also has international roots. The credo of the organization is that the preparation of the individuals for the proper protection of others is the key. Such people have to be offered highest quality training, extensive knowledge, and practical background. The ISS training programs are based predominantly on the experiences gained in Israel and in other countries, as well as while training people for the purpose of protecting VIPs over the world. Individuals, governmental authorities, and large-size corporations have been taking advantage of the services provided by the ISA/ISS.

At the moment, civil bodyguards are also involved in close protection. The safety of the individuals hiring them, as well as their possessions depends highly on the qualifications of the former. Quite frequently, those are former policemen, soldiers, or special force members. However, a number of inexperienced adepts would like to start their adventure with personal protection as well. Are they bound to fail in their attempts? It is not always so. The most crucial component affecting the effectiveness of the training is one’s psychological preparation. It is a commonly known fact that it is exceptional in former police officers and troops. However, it is a common belief that one can be trained how to perform the job of a bodyguard, just as it is possible to teach a person how to shoot or be properly engaged in melee combat. It all depends on one’s motivation and willingness to achieve success in the industry. Regulations to date limit the training process of a security guard to the moment of being awarded with a license. In order to perform his tasks properly, such a person has to constantly improve his skills and qualifications.

Phenomena connected with the need of utilization of close protection techniques – Terrorism/Terrorist. It goes without saying that terrorism is one of the biggest threats of today’s world. While analyzing the severity of attacks and their scale, one should not doubt that VIPs should be at all possible occasions protected against the aforementioned forms of assault. In order to assess the threat a given problem pose, its specificity must be identified at first. The notion of „terrorism” was for the first time in history used during the Conference of the International Criminal Law Association in Brussels, in 1930. To date, there have been approximately 200 various definitions of the phenomenon in question. While trying to grasp its characteristic features, one will face a number of limitations and difficulties. One of statements of historian Walter Laqueur has to be touched upon here. While asked why he has been avoiding formulating an unequivocal definition of terrorism, he replied: „For 50 or so years, people are constantly trying to understand the idea behind terrorism. It is a phenomenon having different forms, depending on its place of origin and epoch. How can one find common ground between Russian revolutionists from the end of the 19th century and Al-Qaida anarchists?

Terrorism is mainly based on the utilization of force or threat in order to achieve political or ideological goals. It is hard to say something beyond that. Terrorism is like pornography – it escapes logical classification, but if one sees it – then it becomes apparent.” It is hard to argue with the statement, as it perfectly shows the complexity of the phenomenon in question. For the purpose of this publication, a strict definition of terrorism is not needed. All that is required is the utterance formulated by Walter Laqueur stating that terrorism can be most fully perceived through its manifestations. Terrorist acts are undoubtedly illegal, as they are based on kidnapping people and forcedly taking control over means of communication, economic sabotage, attacks, robberies, demanding ransom to finance organization’s own activity, posing threat to life, health, and freedom of authorities, and kidnapping people from outside the area in order to gain publicity (especially journalists, priests, voluntary workers). One may also indicate the usage of explosives and firearms in public areas and poisoning certain spots by means of radioactive materials and chemicals. Longin Tadeusz Szmidt additionally pointed out that terrorism has always been strictly connected with crafty and hard to identify methods of killing the leaders of nations. While describing the phenomenon of terrorism as a threat for the protected person, one should also point out and indicate its sources. The following are enumerated: - social and economic sources that are directly connected to economic crises, social tensions, social and national discrimination, as well as with the perception of dissonance between the factual reality and the one presented by the media; - historical and political sources. They have their beginning in severe social reactions, demanding full democratization and respecting human rights; - sociological sources that may be related to the atmosphere typical for a given country or the so-called spirit of violence; - psychological sources stating that a significant part of terrorists is highly mentally unstable which is additionally combined with the overly high self-esteem. When it comes to the area of attack, the following are proposed by the experts: - land terrorism (the major threat area for VIPs and the key one for security guards), - air terrorism (personal protection is then entrusted to the authorities managing planes, airports, etc.), and – maritime terrorism (tasks and responsibilities are then similar to air attacks). While taking into account the type of terroristic activities, one may distinguish: bombing-based, nuclear, biological, chemical, technical, cybernetic (attacks on IT networks), and narcotic-oriented (narcotic cartels undertakings) terrorism. The highest threat for VIPs is undoubtedly the first type, namely – bombing-based one. Close protection-oriented undertakings should therefore incorporate the knowledge on paradigms effective during a bomb attack. They will be discussed in further sections of this publication. It is exceptionally difficult to argue with the thesis that we must be protected against terrorism. The same applies to VIPs. The importance of the latter is also worth discussing, as the threat is much higher when a top authority is attacked than when the assault poses threat to a pop star or a wealthy businessman. However, it does not limit the necessity to analyze and counteract terroristic attack threat. It may directly impact the safety of the person a given security guard is responsible for.

Crime is also one of the issues that may endanger protected VIPs. Up to the beginning of the 80s, Poland had been considered to be one of the safest countries in Europe. Law enforcement bodies had been numerous and properly financed there, and crime forecasting, prevention, and penalizing schemes had met all the European standards. However, at the end of the discussed period, the myth of threat-free Poland started to crumble. The effects of crime fighting scene were becoming gradually more negligible. The said state of affairs was predominantly caused by the decreasing trust in law enforcing organizations, as well as by the rapid increase in crimes committed by the citizens. Another important aspect that must be taken into account were economic and political changes taking place in 1989,the liberalization of economic activity, and the emergence of free market. Some individuals possessed unimaginable riches, whereas others were exceptionally poor. In order to survive till the next day, the latter searched for the answer in crimes, leading to the occurrence of the phenomenon commonly known as organized crime. According to official data from 2001, within the borders of Poland, there were over 400 organized crime groups consociating approximately 45 thousand people. They were generating profits by means of goods smuggling, selling stolen cars, producing and marketing narcotics, counterfeiting national currency, commuting bank frauds, selling firearms, and – what is of exceptional importance from the point of view of VIPs – demanding ransom. Criminals induce fear in the society, especially due to using terror and blackmailing. They do not hesitate to kidnap others or kill them. Such individuals resort to brutal treatment, such as beating, torturing, drowning, etc. All those factors combined directly translate into wealthy representatives of the society feeling threatened. What is more, criminals frequently tend to attack the family of a VIP as well, in order to convince him to perform a given action. Therefore, children, wife, and beloved ones of such an individual must be highly protected.

Popularity/Fame –The threat of attack may be in some cases linked to the popularity of a given human being. When a VIP is in isolation, then he may only receive unwanted phone calls or be nagged by photographers. The problem arises when he has to leave his place of permanent residence or workplace, as well as when he is in a publically accessible place. Danger may still be low, but the inquisitiveness of journalist may quickly become overwhelming. Fans or supporters of a given sportsman or artist may cause havoc in order to touch their idol or get hold of any item belonging to him or her. Of course, there is also the risk of serious injuries or even death (let us take John Lennon as an example) – it cannot be neglected. That is why famous and popular individuals should by all means care about their safety. The matter also concerns politicians who are widely recognizable and controversial. In politics, there are no limitations. Opponents may even resort to killing a representative of the other side to impose his or her right on others. Elected politicians tend to have close protection, but care should be additionally exercised to care about those running in elections. Such VIPs may be ridiculed by the crowd or the opposition (by throwing eggs or pouring water over the candidate), leading to the end of their political career. The role of security guards should in the aforementioned cases not be limited to physical protection only. They must also keep information about VIP’s family, realized projects, and operation profile confidential. The image of a famous person highly depends on the bodyguards being in his immediate surroundings. The manner of their operation, professionalism, and knowledge are top priorities there.

Attack on person – By definition, attack on person is the attempt to kill someone, steal his or her possessions, as well as to kidnap him or her. The criminal action in question has a long history, as assaults have been made throughout the consecutive ages. Their goal has been to achieve a political, economic, or cultural aim. Attacks on person may lead to tremendous changes in the society, which is perfectly depicted by the killing of John Kennedy and Icchak Rabin. In the majority of cases, however, such an attack does not have significantly far-reaching consequences. In order to be effective, bodyguards must answer themselves the following questions – why do criminals attack? How do they attack? How may the assault look like? Therefore, it is highly advised to specify the motif, methods utilized, and consecutive stages of one and every attack on person. Taking into account motifs, one must bear in mind that all the assaults have their agenda. No attack is made voluntarily, without forethought. In the following sections, most common causes of the aforementioned activity are going to be enumerated:

Revolutionary or political ones – organized groups (frequently consisting of fanatics) attack others in order to force the society to change the existing system or overthrow the current government (in the attempt to choose a new one). Their victims are often the authorities ruling the country. The attackers, who follow their revolutionary or political agenda, try to win the sympathy of other representatives of the society. Long before the planned attack itself, they distribute leaflets blaming current rulers for the widespread injustice. According to their belief, the elimination of the elites in power would bring positive outcomes for the whole country. Such an action was performed in Armenia in 1999, where members of the government were shot dead during one of their meetings. The terrorists informed that their death would improve the national situation.

Economic – terrorists claim that their potential victim is responsible for the poor economic condition of the country, company, or a group of people. In the majority of cases, economic attacks take place in countries where there are extreme disproportions between the wealthy and the poor. It must be taken into consideration, however that it is not always the case, as the assessment of the attackers tend to be highly subjective. Quite frequently, the cause of the assault is the personal conviction that the unsatisfying economic condition of the terrorist is the result of actions performed by the victim. It pushes the attacker into thinking that killing him would aid the situation.

Personal – In this case, the wrongdoers are motivated to make an attack due to jealousy, vengeance or other personal causes. Those people in many cases have notable personality disorders, manifesting themselves especially in the inability to control their behavior. The aforementioned state also leads to the failure to distinguish reality from fiction. A perfect exemplification of the motif in question is shooting Zuzanna Leśniak and an artist – Andrzej Zaucha by Yves Goulais in 1991. The trigger there was jealousy.

Ideological – The terrorist is convinced that the victim chosen by him has been threatening the values and principles followed by the attacker. The said rules are often of significant importance for both the group he belongs to and for himself personally. Ideological attacks on a person may be religious or social in character. The first case is oriented towards killing a religious person in the attempt to make it impossible for him to achieve his goals. The second scenario relates to the willingness to eliminate the leader of a given social group. Quite frequently, the additional agenda is to make the organization the terrorist is a part of more memorable and popular in the media. Free publicity is an additional benefit then.

Psychological – The most commonplace group of attacks. Modern psychology claims that every person using firearms, stabbing others with a knife, or taking advantage of explosives has been struggling with mental problems. The motif is of negligible importance, as the attacker may justify his actions with revolutionary, economic, or personal goals, but the fact is that the driving force is the inability to perceive the world correctly. The assassination of Bill Clinton in 1994 illustrates the above bluntly. Francisco Martin Duran stated that he had attacked Clinton to destroy the mist connecting him to an alien entity. Apparently, Duran wanted to eliminate the mist in order to save the world. Attacks considered as crimes may be triggered by a myriad of factors. Among them,there are: - clashes between the representatives of a crime organization, willingness to demonstrate one’s power or threat the victim (attempt to force the latter to pay ransom or forget about debts), - desire to kill suspects that may endanger one’s business, - attempt to exert pressure on certain individuals or to threaten them for their professional achievements (relates to, inter alia, attorneys and tax collectors).

Attack methods to be considered by security guards. Close range attack. It may be performed by means of utilization of: - firearms, - melee weapon (knife, bayonet, dagger), - chemical substance (for example: toxic substance, such as hydrochloric acid). There are no exceptional skills needed to successfully attack a person, as almost everybody can use a knife or a dagger to a satisfactory extent. The same goes with firearms, the utilization of which is as difficult as driving a car. The aforementioned types of weapons can be transported to the place of the assault with ease. The characteristic feature of this attack type is the fact that the wrongdoer is situated maximally several centimeters away from the victim. The difficulty here is directly connected with the inability to improvise the act. It must be preceded by a prolonged observation of the subject, learning his or her customs, daily routine, places he or she visits, and the protection type he or she uses. Only after drawing proper conclusions from the examination, can the terrorist attack the victim. Marek Papała, a police commissioner, was killed due to a close range attack in 1998, Warsaw.

Long-range attack – in this case firearms are often used, especially rifles and carbines. It is not an uncommon situation to learn about an attacker who has used a sniper rifle fitted with professional laser and optical aiming devices. The distance between the wrongdoer and the subject of the attack is commonly higher than 5 meters. The former must also be much more skilled than a close range attacker, as he has to be capable of utilizing a professional gun in an effective manner. The death of John Kennedy in Dallas on 22nd November 1963 was the result of the attack form in question. Lee Harvey Oswald, who was a former marine soldier, shot his subject from a storage located several meters away from president’s cavalcade. To perform the act, he used Mannlicher-Carcano, cal. 6.5 mm rifle. The proficiency of the attacker was proven by the fact that he fired three shots and only one of them missed the target.

Attack with explosives – it requires notable skills, for the wrongdoers has to build a bomb before performing the attack. He must also know how and where to plant the explosive, how to situate the fuse inside and where to detonate it. Such a person also has to be familiar with the effects of explosion. Assault on Margaret Thatcher on 12th October 1984 showed how patient and clever can an attacker taking advantage of explosives be. Patrick Magee, a member of Irish Republican Army, moved into the hotel where the British prime minister was expected to stay 24 days before the said fact. Every single day, he worked meticulously destroying the wall and placing a 50-kilogram explosive inside the hole. The bomb was then fitted with a timer. It exploded when Miss Thatcher was considered to wash herself in the bathroom – the attacker was perfectly acquainted with her customs. She would have died if she had not received a document to be read. The explosive was detonated five floors above the bathroom located in the apartment of the „Iron Lady”. Six other people died as a result, but the suspect managed to avoid the clever assassination.

If you are looking to hire close protection in London do not wait and contact us immiedletly for professional bodyguard services in London.
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2020.09.15 19:28 Numerous_Magician359 Ideas

Many People have been talking about having a business update which I totally agree with but aside from that here are a couple of Ideas that may have been brought up already(I'm not really sure)
1: I think we should have an Update that not only allows you to start your own startup company/business and own stocks but with addition to that we should be able to start our own Law Firm and our own private practice for Dental,Medical,etc.., and if we are a chef I think we should be able to open our own restaurant or restaurants and if we are a barber(potential future job) we should be able to open up our own barbershops or barbershop, oh and also we should be able to own our own nightclubs,casino's, hotels etc.. ( mentioned before)
2: Not only that I also think that we should have more schools added for example Barber School,Culinary School,etc...,.
3.I think for the Royals you should provide them with there own Royal Planes just like in real life the Queen of England has her own Royal Train and Plane, and also for the President you should provide them with Air Force One and also I think you should provide the Royals and Top Government officials with their own personal security detail.(mentioned before)
4.Also, if you are the King or Queen of England you should be able to Reign over the Commonwealth Realms which are territories of the British Empire/ and you should be able to travel to these places and stay for as long as you like.
5.I also think they should create more Law & Enforcement Job Options along with more Government Jobs and Military General Rank options for example,Vice President, Secretary of Sate, NSA Director,FBI,4 Star General,General of the Army, Secret Service,Congressmen and Senator etc...
6.I also think that we should be able to start our own charity organizations ( mentioned already) and also be able to date and marry other celebrities and if we are already royal we should still be able to date and marry other royals.(mentioned already)
  1. As mentioned before we should be able to play in professional sports,rent out properties,buy stock,buy businesses,sale businesses and hire people such as maids,butlers, personal chefs etc..,
8.Also I think even if we aren't a government official but we are famous or a business tycoon we should be able to hire our own body guards, and also last but not least I think that we should be have more jobs. (I think it has been mentioned before)
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2020.09.15 16:31 n0thric Finding My Soulmate - Part 4

Here is part four of my story. The story is 100% true - the only things that have been changed are the names. This part was difficult to write. I tried my best to condense a large amount of time in to a few pages without it feeling rushed. I'm only posting the remaining parts of the story here on my profile because it doesn't seem fitting to put them anywhere else. Messages & chats are welcome and encouraged. Henry Thomas
Previous parts: Part One Part Two Part Three
Aftershock
“I’ll call you back in a bit. I can’t talk right now.” I heard a flurry of activity in the background. And with that, she was gone. I sat there for a moment. My body was numb. I kept looking around the room trying to figure out if this was all just some fucked up dream.
My body was on autopilot when I picked up the phone. I dialed Thomas.
“Hey, what’s up?” he answered excitedly.
“He’s dead. Henry is dead.” I sobbed.
The other end of the line was silent for a few long moments. “Come pick me up.”
I climbed out of bed, threw on some clothes and jumped in the car. I don’t even remember driving there but I arrived at Thomas’ house. He ran out and jumped in my car. “Drive somewhere.” He could tell by the look on my face that this wasn’t just some fucked up joke.
I pulled out and drove toward a nearby park.
“How?”
“I don’t know yet.”
“Fuck.”
We drove in silence the rest of the way. I parked and we got out of the car and walked over to a nice sunny spot and sat down. “So now what?” Thomas asked.
“I mean, I’m thinking of going to join him to be honest.” I admitted.
“If you’re going to be with him, I’m going too.” he said flatly. It wasn’t a threat to make me back out. He was simply ready to follow me if that was what I decided.
We sat in silence for what seemed like ages. He finally asked, “What will happen to his mom if we kill ourselves?”
I thought about it for a bit. “I’m not sure. I’m worried that she might too.”
“Doesn’t he have a little sister?” he asked.
“Yeah she’s a senior in high school this year.”
Silence. We were both still so stunned neither of us was crying.
“Fuck. I can’t do that to his mom.” I admitted.
“If you’re staying then I’ll stay with you.” Thomas put his arm around me.
My phone rang in my pocket. It was his mom.
“Hello?” I tried my best to not break down.
“Oh Drew. I’m so sorry. I know how much you loved him.” Did she though? She was clearly trying her hardest not to cry. “We could use your help. You knew him the best and we aren’t sure what he would want. Would you be comfortable helping us make those decisions?”
I was holding the phone away from my ear a bit so that Thomas could hear what was being said. “Yes I could help. What happened to him?”
She paused for a second trying to understand my question. “Oh my God, I didn’t even tell you yet. I’m sorry my mind is gone.”
“It’s okay, you don’t have to apologize.”
“He had a rolled up bill next to him and there was a baggie on the desk. The detectives assume it was cocaine that had been laced with something.” She paused. “I… I found him slumped in his computer chair. I’d heard him talking to you a few minutes before.” She broke down. Tears were running down my face but I was doing a good job of not sobbing and making it more painful for her. Thomas squeezed my shoulder.
“We don’t know what he would have wanted. Would he want to be buried? I don’t think he liked the concept of being buried in a graveyard, but I’m just not sure. Would cremation be better? He loved science so we thought maybe we should donate his body to science.” I cringed visibly when she said that. The thought of his body being messed around with by strangers struck a nerve.
“He would want to be cremated. He enjoyed hanging out in graveyards because they are peaceful but he hated the idea of being buried.” I said with conviction.
“Okay, that’s what I thought but I knew that you would know.” She sounded relieved. “I think that he would want you to have some of his ashes so once I have them I will set some aside for you.”
As soon as those words escaped her mouth I lost it. The emotion came crashing out. I dropped my phone and sobbed. Thomas held me as I wept for a minute or two. I finally pulled myself back together and picked the phone back up. “Sorry. I’m trying to keep it together.” My voice was ragged.
“Do you have someone there? Are you, okay?” She was clearly worried that I was considering doing exactly what I’d been considering doing.
“Henry’s friend is here with me.” I told her.
“Could I speak to him for a second?” she asked. I looked at Thomas and he nodded his head. I handed him the phone.
“I’m so sorry for your loss.” his voice cracked. He listened for a bit. “Yeah, I’m going to stay with him and make sure.” He listened a bit more. “Okay, talk to you soon.” He handed the phone back to me.
“We are thinking that he wouldn’t want a traditional service?” she asked.
“Oh no way, he hated those.” I recalled all the times he had complained about how much he hated going to services.
“Okay, we are thinking just an open house where his friends and family can come by the house and pay respects. Nothing formal.”
“I think he would like that idea.”
“Will you be able to come out for it?” she asked. “He would want you here.” Her voice cracked.
“I think my passport has expired… I don’t know if I can get it renewed in time.” I began to panic.
“You don’t need to be here that day. Anytime you can make it here, we… I want you to visit.”
“Okay, I’ll see what I can do.”
“We are going to post that he passed away on Facebook this afternoon. Who should we reach out to besides family before we do that.” she asked.
“His friend Ron should know. If you do that, I will message Sara and tell her. I think Henry would want me to do that.” I tried to think of anyone else that should be told personally. “I can’t think of anyone else.”
“Okay. I have so much I have to do. Is it okay if I call you back later?” she sounded overwhelmed.
“Of course.” We hung up and I sat in stunned silence. Never in my wildest dreams did I suspect that I would have to decide what to do with Henry’s body.
“Does anyone else know?” Thomas asked.
“That he’s dead?”
“No… that you two were together.”
As soon as Thomas said it, the realization of the situation washed over me. We were the only people who knew that he was gay. “No, just you…” the tears started to fall again.
“Do we… tell people?” He reached over and grabbed my hand.
“We can’t out him after he’s gone…” It was a question as much as it was a statement. I locked eyes with Thomas to see if he agreed.
“You’ve got to at least tell his family. Otherwise they won’t understand what you were to him.” he pointed out.
“She said she was giving me some of his ashes. What more could I want? That’s all that matters. I don’t need to out him.” my mind was a mess. I typically excelled at thinking through complex problems, but trying to assign logic to emotional decisions just wasn’t working.
“You need to tell Sara?” Thomas reminded me. I had already forgotten.
“Fuck. Yeah.” I opened Facebook Messenger. I didn’t know what to say. I opted to simply say that Henry had passed away and that there would be more details posted on Facebook soon.
The rest of the day was a blur. Thomas got me back to my place and we sat on the bed in a daze. The Facebook post set off a storm of messages. Henry had always kept me separate and apart from his friends back home. I think it was his way of making sure that he could share anything with me and know that it was safe - so I was spared from the vast majority of the message storm. A few people who were mutual friends of Henry and I on Facebook reached out to see if I was okay. I simply said ‘No’ and none of them followed up with anything else.
Thomas sat there, shell-shocked. “What the fuck is going on?” It was too much for him to even process.
“I don’t know dude.” My mind couldn’t focus on anything.
“Have you eaten yet today?” he asked me.
“I don’t know... “ I couldn’t remember. Thomas went downstairs and made me some food and brought it back to my bed.
“Here, you need to eat.” I put some food in my mouth and began chewing. My body didn’t want the food but Thomas insisted that I finish it all.
The two of us sat there the rest of the weekend. Thomas made sure that I ate and forced me to take a shower. My passport was expired so I wouldn’t be able to attend Henry’s service. Part of me was relieved. There was no way I could be there without giving away how much I cared for him. That would end up creating drama I wanted to avoid.
The next week was incredibly hard. I went to work and pretended that my entire world hadn’t just crashed down. Thomas moved in with me to make sure that I was okay. The service came and went. His mom sent pictures.
I made plans to visit her the week after Christmas. I just went through the motions of life each day. Every night Thomas would lay his head on my chest and I’d scratch it and try to fall asleep. After a week of little to no sleep, Thomas came up with an idea. He took a shower and then put on some of Henry’s deodorant and cologne that he had left at my place. He climbed into bed and snuggled up with me.
I immediately broke down and snuggled up next to him. After crying for what seemed like hours, I was able to finally fall asleep. With my eyes closed it was as if Henry was still laying beside me.
The Visit
Hours bled into days. Days bled into weeks. I didn’t go home for Thanksgiving or Christmas. I couldn’t celebrate. There was nothing left to be happy about.
The date of my trip finally arrived. I hadn’t bothered telling anyone I was going except for Henry’s mom and Thomas. I had never flown before because I was terrified of dying in a plane crash. I didn’t care about that anymore.
As I approached Henry’s hometown I thought it looked oddly similar to my own even though it was on the other side of the continent. His mom met me at the airport. It was our first time meeting in person. I tried to hide my pain. I did a poor job of it.
She drove back to her house. Things had quieted down. She still had her Christmas decorations up. I recognized all of them from Henry’s Snapchats over the years.
“Are you okay with sleeping in his room? I should have asked you that before I told you not to get a hotel.” she looked concerned.
“I want to sleep in his room.” my voice cracked. She nodded and led the way.
“I’ll give you some time to unpack and get settled. I thought we could drive around and I’ll show you all his favorite spots?” she said, clearly unsure of my reaction.
“Yeah, I’d like that.” the tears started flowing freely. She left to give me some time. I sat on the bed and looked around a room I knew almost as well as my own even though I’d never set foot in it. After hundreds of hours of video chats and thousands of Snapchats, I knew every inch of his room. I opened his closet. All his clothes were hung organized by color, just the way he liked it. I started to flip through his shirts.
There was the shirt that he wore the first day I met him. The shirt he wore the day he said we should spend our lives together. The shirt he was wearing that day in my car when he decided we should be more than friends. I collapsed on the floor. I didn’t even try to hide my sobbing.
On the floor of the closet were his favorite shoes. He had worn them during countless of our memories together. I picked one up as if it were the most valuable object in the entire world. His mother walked in to check on me and found me there holding a shoe.
“Oh Drew…” she picked me up off the floor and gave me a hug. “How do we get through this?”
“I don’t know…” I sobbed. “Can I see his ashes?”
“Drew, his dad picked them up from the funeral home and won’t give them back to me.” her voice trembled.
“Are you serious?” I couldn’t believe it. Actually, knowing his father, I could believe it.
“Yes, I’ve been asking for them back for over a month now.” she admitted. “I didn’t want you to get upset so I didn’t want to tell you.”
Anger suddenly changed into panic. “He’s not going to spread him somewhere is he?” The thought of Henry disappearing into the wind before I got a chance to say my goodbyes terrified me.
“I don’t think so. He wouldn’t dare.” We both knew that was a lie. He would dare.
After taking a while to collect myself she took me on a tour. She showed me where Henry went to grade school. The old family house where he was living when we first met. The parks and playgrounds he used to hang out in. I had her take me to his favorite back road to drive fast on and the cemetery he used to hang out in and smoke pot. She drove past a baseball field and said that was where he used to play his baseball games. “He loved catching.” she stated. I involuntarily snorted. As soon as I did, a look of terror formed on my face. “What’s so funny?” she asked.
“Oh nothing. We just used to have an inside joke about baseball.” I dodged.
I asked her to take me by a dozen or so other spots that he had wanted to show me. I think she was a bit surprised by the number of places he had told me about but she seemed happy to show me around.
That night she made me one of his favorite meals. It was delicious but I had a hard time eating it through the tears. She had left her Christmas decorations up because she wanted to have me around for emotional support when she took them down. Henry had loved Christmas so much and so many of the decorations were ones that he had made for her.
As we took the decorations off the tree, she told me each one’s backstory. I took photos of all the ones that Henry had made her. It took us nearly 4 hours and a full box of tissues to pack away all the decorations. I was so glad that I was able to be there to help her with it.
His mom went to bed early that night and I stayed up for hours going through his room. Henry was the sentimental type and he also took great care of his possessions so there was a lot to go through. His clothes hamper was empty. His aunt had thought that she was being helpful by doing his laundry and washing his sheets a few days after he passed. His mother was devastated that there wasn’t anything left that smelled like him.
I shared her pain. He had left a dirty shirt and a dirty pair of boxer briefs at my place. I put them in Ziploc in hopes of keeping his smell on them.
I took one of his shirts that he had worn often when he was living with me and put it on one of his pillows. I sprayed it with his cologne. I crawled into bed in the darkness and clutched the pillow tightly. It would be the closest I would come to sleeping next to him in his room.
The next morning his mom asked if I could help her set up her new printer. I sat down at her computer and immediately noticed a list of 10 New England towns. “What is this?” I asked her.
“Those are the towns that I’m thinking of moving to in New England.” she replied.
“You realize that the one you have listed as number one is the town I grew up in right?” I asked. Her eyes grew wide. She apparently hadn’t known.
“I’ve been drawn to that town and I had no idea why.” she told me.
“Henry has been there a bunch of times with me. He loved it there.” as soon as I said it, tears started to well up in her eyes.
“That can’t be a coincidence can it?” she asked.
“You really had no idea that’s where I grew up?” I probed.
“No clue. But as soon as I saw a picture of it, I knew that’s where I needed to go.” she told me. We both knew that Henry had to have influenced her. She became even more resolute in her decision to move there as soon as she knew Henry loved it there.
The next few days were a whirlwind. His mom continued to show me around and arrange visits with his closest friends. She asked his father if he would like to meet me. His response was, “How dare you invite him here without asking me first.” Needless to say, we didn’t meet.
Henry had sold off some of his possessions when he was in debt before moving in with me. I got on his email and sent messages to all the people who bought items and told them the situation and asked if I could buy the items back. Everyone was nice enough to sell me back the items for what they had paid for them. One of the items I got back was a guitar that his parents had given him for his 14th birthday. When his mom saw that I got everything back she broke down.
Three days into my week-long visit, his mom got a phone call. Her brother had succumbed to cancer a few days before Christmas, but the family had agreed to wait until summer to have a funeral / celebration of life for him so that it would give people time to travel and see one another. Apparently her brother’s partner suddenly decided that she didn’t want to wait until summer. She was going to have a funeral in two days.
Henry’s mom didn’t know what to do. “I can’t NOT go to my brother’s funeral.” she told me.
“If you don’t mind me being here by myself, I don’t mind staying. You go be with your family.” I didn’t want to cut my visit short. I needed to spend as much time in his hometown as I could.
That night I dropped her off at the airport and went back to her house by myself. What initially seemed like a curse turned out to be a blessing. Having a few days to myself with Henry’s things was exactly what I needed. It gave me time to reflect on our time together. I was able to go through his computer and laptop and back everything up to an external drive and then sanitize it. There was no need for his family to find a gay porn stash.
His mom made it safely to her brother’s funeral. She sent me pictures of the service and it looked beautiful.
I asked her if it would be okay for me to take a couple of Henry’s things that only held sentimental value to me. She gave me her blessing. I immediately started a pile. I took his 3 favorite shirts, all but a few pairs of his boxer briefs, his favorite sandals, all the tickets and memorabilia left from the concerts that he and I had gone to together over the years, his wallet and his toiletries bag. I knew his dad would probably want his wallet but he could suck my dick. He wasn’t getting it.
His mom sent a text later that night that blew my mind. Henry would want you to have his car. Henry had a Miata that he had spent years fixing up. It was his most prized possession.
Are you sure? I asked her.
Yes.
I immediately went out and spent an hour prepping the car. It was way too far for me to drive it back so I would have to arrange to have it transported back at some point.
That night I sat on the spot where he died by myself in the dark. I talked to him and told him how much I missed him and how hard life was without him. I told him I forgave him for leaving me as soon as he did and assured him that I would take care of his mom. I talked for hours, hoping that he could hear me.
My visit finally came to an end. I packed up my stuff along with Henry’s possessions that I had picked out and headed to the airport. I returned home to begin my life without Henry. An adventure I was not looking forward to.
Part 5
submitted by n0thric to u/n0thric [link] [comments]


2020.09.14 16:01 autotldr 'It seems systematic': Doctors group finds 115 cases of head injuries from crowd control weapons during nationwide protests

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 77%. (I'm a bot)
At least 115 people were injured this summer when police shot them in the head or neck with so-called "Less-lethal" projectiles at protests over racial injustice and police brutality, according to a report published Monday.
It's the most comprehensive tally of such injuries to date, with about twice as many victims as USA TODAY and Kaiser Health News cited in a July examination of how police across the U.S. wielded the weapons to control crowds.
The organization identified Austin, Texas, Portland, Oregon, and Los Angeles as hotspots during the period studied, May 26 to July 27.Abigail Rodas, who was shot in the jaw with a rubber bullet on May 30, was one of the victims in Los Angeles, according to a lawsuit filed against the city and the police chief on behalf of Black Lives Matter Los Angeles, the Los Angeles Community Action Network and 14 people, including six who were struck with projectiles.
'Protests shouldn't end in people being blinded':Cities, states begin to ban police use of rubber bullets.
In a letter to the editor of the New England Journal of Medicine, a group of Austin doctors said 19 patients were treated for bean bag-related wounds at the downtown hospital closest to the protests over two days in late May.'Less lethal' can still maim and kill: A visual guide to weapons police use on protesters.
Among the group's recommendations are banning weapons that release scattershot or multiple projectiles from a single canister because they can hit people indiscriminately, Haar said.
Summary Source FAQ Feedback Top keywords: projectile#1 police#2 protest#3 weapons#4 people#5
Post found in /politics.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
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2020.09.12 13:47 CSGOMatchThreads Intel Extreme Masters XV - New York / Information, Schedule & Discussion

Intel Extreme Masters XV - New York

Streams

English

Format (Europe)

Group Stage
  • October 6th - 9th
  • Double-elimination bracket (GSL Format)
  • Two groups of four teams each
  • Best-of-three matches
  • Top two teams from each group advance to the playoffs
  • Bottom two teams from each group are eliminated
Playoffs
  • October 10th - 11th
  • Single-elimination bracket
  • Best-of-three matches
  • Best-of-five grand final

Format (North America)

Group Stage
  • October 6th - 7th
  • Round-robin format
  • Two groups of six teams each
  • Best-of-three matches
  • Top three teams advance to the playoffs
Playoffs
  • October 15th - 18th
  • Best-of-three matches
  • Best-of-five grand final

Format (CIS)

Group Stage
  • October 8th - 9th
  • Round-robin format
  • Two groups of six teams each
  • Best-of-three matches
  • Top three teams advance to the playoffs
Playoffs
  • October 23rd - 25th
  • Best-of-three matches
  • Best-of-five grand final

Broadcast Talent

CIS
Cyber Legacy: clax, fostar, glowiing, seized, tricky, Coach: XomA
ESPADA: degster, Dima, FinigaN, Patsi, S0tF1k, Coach: hally
Ethereal: BELCHONOKK, KENSI, PASHANOJ, R0b3n, zorte, Coach: OverDrive
forZe: almazer, facecrack, FL1T, Jerry, xsepower, Coach: liTTle
Gambit Youngsters: Ax1Le, interz, nafany, sh1ro, supra
Hard Legion Esports: Forester, kinqie, Krad, rAge, svyat, Coach: starix
k23: kade0, Keoz, mou, n0rb3r7, neaLaN
Natus Vincere: Boombl4, electronic, flamie, Perfecto, s1mple, Coach: B1ad3
Nemiga Gaming: boX, Jyo, lollipop21k, mds, speed4k, Coach: keep3r
Team Spirit: chopper, iDISBALANCE, magixx, mir, sdy, Coach: Certus
Virtus.pro: buster, Jame, qikert, SANJI, YEKINDAR, Coach: dastan
Winstrike Team: bondik, El1an, KrizzeN, Lack1, NickelBack, Coach: hooch
 
Europe
BIG: k1to, syrsoN, tabseN, tiziaN, XANTARES, Coach: tow b
Complexity Gaming: blameF, k0nfig, oBo, poizon, RUSH, Coach: keita
FaZe Clan: broky, coldzera, Kjaerbye, NiKo, rain, Coach: YNk
Fnatic: Brollan, flusha, Golden, JW, KRIMZ, Coach: Samuelsson
G2 Esports: AmaNEk, huNter-, JaCkz, kennyS, nexa, Coach: maLeK
Heroic: b0RUP, cadiaN, niko, stavn, TeSeS
OG: Aleksib, ISSAA, mantuu, NBK-, valde, Coach: ruggah
Team Vitality: apEX, misutaaa, RpK, shox, ZywOo, Coach: XTQZZZ
 
North America
100 Thieves: AZR, Gratisfaction, jkaem, jks, Liazz, Coach: ImAPet
Cloud9: floppy, JT, motm, oSee, Sonic, Coach: T.c
Evil Geniuses: Brehze, CeRq, Ethan, stanislaw, tarik, Coach: zews
FURIA Esports: arT, HEN1, KSCERATO, VINI, yuurih, Coach: guerri
Gen.G Esports: autimatic, BnTeT, daps, koosta, s0m, Coach: Elmapuddy
MIBR: FalleN, fer, kNgV-, TACO, trk
New England Whalers: ben1337, Bwills, djay, PwnAlone, Rampage, Coach: Muenster
Swole Patrol: Cooper-, dazzLe, Infinite, wippie, Zellsis, Coach: Immi
Team Liquid: EliGE, Grim, NAF, Stewie2K, Twistzz, Coach: moses
Team oNe eSports: b4rtiN, malbsMd, Maluk3, pesadelo, prt, Coach: cky
Triumph: junior, moose, penny, Shakezullah, Spongey, Coach: tacitus
Yeah Gaming: dumau, f4stzin, RCF, Swisher, tatazin, Coach: mza

Schedule

Day 1 (Tuesday October 6)
ID Team vs Team Result PDT EDT BRT GMT CEST EEST SGT AEDT Format
Day 2 (Wednesday October 7)
ID Team vs Team Result PDT EDT BRT GMT CEST EEST SGT AEDT Format
Day 3 (Thursday October 8)
ID Team vs Team Result PDT EDT BRT GMT CEST EEST SGT AEDT Format
Day 4 (Friday October 9)
ID Team vs Team Result PDT EDT BRT GMT CEST EEST SGT AEDT Format
Day 5 (Saturday October 10)
ID Team vs Team Result PDT EDT BRT GMT CEST EEST SGT AEDT Format
ESF TBD vs TBD TBD 05:00 08:00 09:00 12:00 14:00 15:00 20:00 23:00 BO3
ESF TBD vs TBD TBD 08:30 11:30 12:30 15:30 17:30 18:30 23:30 02:30 BO3
Day 6 (Sunday October 11)
ID Team vs Team Result PDT EDT BRT GMT CEST EEST SGT AEDT Format
EGF Winner ESF vs Winner ESF TBD 07:00 10:00 11:00 14:00 16:00 17:00 22:00 01:00 BO5
Day 7 (Thursday October 15)
ID Team vs Team Result PDT EDT BRT GMT CEST EEST SGT AEDT Format
Day 8 (Friday October 16)
ID Team vs Team Result PDT EDT BRT GMT CEST EEST SGT AEDT Format
Day 9 (Saturday October 17)
ID Team vs Team Result PDT EDT BRT GMT CEST EEST SGT AEDT Format
Day 10 (Sunday October 18)
ID Team vs Team Result PDT EDT BRT GMT CEST EEST SGT AEDT Format
NGF Winner NSF vs Winner NSF TBD 12:00 15:00 16:00 19:00 21:00 22:00 03:00 06:00 BO5
Day 11 (Friday October 23)
ID Team vs Team Result PDT EDT BRT GMT CEST EEST SGT AEDT Format
Day 12 (Saturday October 24)
ID Team vs Team Result PDT EDT BRT GMT CEST EEST SGT AEDT Format
Day 13 (Sunday October 25)
ID Team vs Team Result PDT EDT BRT GMT CET EET SGT AEDT Format
CGF Winner CSF vs Winner CSF TBD 04:00 07:00 08:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 18:00 21:00 BO5

Prize Pool

CIS
# Prize RMR ESL Pro Tour Team
1st $20,000 2500 pts 350 pts Winner CGF
2nd $7,000 2344 pts 200 pts Loser CGF
3rd $4,000 2188 pts 125 pts
4th $4,000 2031 pts 125 pts
5th $3,000 1875 pts 70 pts
6th $3,000 1719 pts 70 pts
7th $2,000 1563 pts 45 pts
8th $2,000 1406 pts 45 pts
9th $1,500 1250 pts 25 pts
10th $1,500 1094 pts 25 pts
11th $1,000 938 pts -
12th $1,000 781 pts -
Europe
# Prize ESL Pro Tour Team
1st $70,000 400 pts Winner EGF
2nd $30,000 275 pts Loser EGF
3rd - 4th $12,000 140 pts Loser ESF
3rd - 4th $12,000 140 pts Loser ESF
5th - 6th $5,000 70 pts Loser EAD
5th - 6th $5,000 70 pts Loser EBD
7th - 8th $3,000 - Loser EAL
7th - 8th $3,000 - Loser EBL
North America
# Prize RMR ESL Pro Tour Team
1st $25,000 2500 pts 400 pts Winner CGF
2nd $10,000 2344 pts 285 pts Loser CGF
3rd $5,000 2188 pts 155 pts
4th $5,000 2031 pts 155 pts
5th $3,000 1875 pts 85 pts
6th $3,000 1719 pts 85 pts
7th $2,000 1563 pts 55 pts
8th $2,000 1406 pts 55 pts
9th $1,500 1250 pts 30 pts
10th $1,500 1094 pts 30 pts
11th $1,000 938 pts -
12th $1,000 781 pts -
submitted by CSGOMatchThreads to GlobalOffensiveTest [link] [comments]


2020.09.08 23:18 clemaneuverers The book, "The Protocols Of The Learned Elders Of Zion", first published circa 120 years ago, is said to be a "fabricated antisemitic text", a "hoax", a "forgery". Recent research I have done leads me to believe that this is not the case and it is actually a genuine document. Long post!

Russian edition 1912
American english edition, 1, 2
It was declared a forgery which means there was an original document somewhere.
–Eustace Mullins
First, a link to the wikipedia page for the protocols so those interested can see how much of what you're about to read is omitted from there:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Protocols_of_the_Elders_of_Zion
The book in which they [the Protocols] are embodied was first published in the year 1897 by Philip Stepanov for private circulation among his intimate friends. The first time Professor Sergius A. Nilus published them was in 1901 in a book called The Great Within the Small and reprinted in 1905. A copy of this is in the British Museum bearing the date of its reception, August 10, 1906.
All copies that were known to exist in Russia were destroyed in the Kerensky regime, and under his successors the possession of a copy by anyone in Soviet land was a crime sufficient to ensure the owner's of being shot on sight. (source):
The best evidence of the genuineness of the Protocols is that in March, 1917 the Bolshevik Revolution took place in Russia and one of the first things done upon the Jewish Bolsheviks taking power was to destroy all copies of Professor Sergius A. Nilus’ book, The Great Within the Small, by. That book, which was first published in Tsarskoe-Tselc (Russia) in 1901, contained The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion. All copies of the Protocols that were known to exist in Russia were destroyed during the Kerensky regime. The law followed by Kerensky’s communist successors to power was that the possession of a copy of the Protocols by anyone in the Soviet Union was a crime punishable by being shot on sight
...Professor Nilus was arrested by the Cheka (Russian Secret Police) in Kiev. He was imprisoned and tortured. The Jewish president of the court, told Professor Nilus that the brutal treatment he received was as retribution for "having done them incalculable harm in publishing the Protocols."
[2011] Solving the Mystery of Babylon the Great by Edward Hendrie
The attack on the Protocols in the 1920’s proved above all else the truth of their contention; it showed that the standing organization for suppressing public discussion of the conspiracy had been perfected in the intervening 120 years . Probably so much money and energy were never before in history expended on the effort to suppress a single document.
[1956] The Controversy of Zion by Douglas Reeds
In 1865 the Jewish Rabbi RZEICHORN, made a speech in Prague. The speech was published 11 years later by Sir John Radcliff, who was assassinated shortly after its publication and it became almost extinct for years. Here are a few passages;
"With Gold one can buy the most upright consiences, with Gold one can fix the value of every stock, the price of every merchandise, one can loan it to states that afterwards one holds at ones mercy.
"Already the principle banks, the stock exchanges throughout the world, the loans to all governments are in our hands. "The other great power is the press. By ceaselessly repeating certain ideas, the press in the end makes them considered as truths. The Theatre renders similair services, every where theatre and press follow our directives. By an indefatigable campaign in favour of the democratic form of government, we will divide the Gentiles amongst themselves in political parties, we shall thus destroy the unity of their nations, we will sow the seeds of discord. Powerless they will have to accept the laws of our bank, always united, always devoted to our cause.
"The possession of land has always procured influence and power. In the name of social justice and equality, we will divide the great properties; we will give small fragments to the peasents who desire it with all their heart, But who will soon be indebted to us by the very exploitation of these properties. Our capital will enable us to be the real masters.
"Let us use all force to replace the circulation of gold by that of paper; our banks will absorb the gold, and we shall decide what then what value the paper money will have, this will make us masters of every mans existence. "We will promise to the workers salaries they have never dared to dream of, but we will also heighten the price of all necessities, so much so that our profits will be even greater.
"By our jokes and attacks we will render their priests ridiculous and eventually odius, their religion as ridiculous, as odius as their priests. We shall become the masters of their souls. But above all, let us get control of education, of the schools. By them we will spread the ideas that are useful to us, and we will mold the childrens brains as we wish".
David Icke writes, in his book "The Trigger" (2019), of the above quotes from Rabbi Rzeichhorn:
Make of that what you will because I can't prove authenticity, but
(a) you have the right to be aware of this information and
(b) there can be no doubt as we observe the world that the plans laid out in the Protocols, by the Sabbatian-Frankist Illuminati and attributed to Rabbi Reichhorn have happened or are happening.
This is so patently obvious that agents of Sabbatian-Frankism, some knowingly, some dupes, have employed the usual fall-back, fit-every-situation technique of condemning as 'antiSemitic' anyone who points this out and asks any questions about the plan described in the Protocols. I am not saying this is all a 'Jewish plot' - I am saying it's a plot by the Sabbatian-Frankist Death Cult that hates and despises Jews and Judaism as it hates and despises everyone else, and that this cult is part of the wider global satanic cult that infests every culture, race and country. On Sabbatian-Frankism I am at one with rabbis such as Marvin S. Antelman and many others.
The Protocols, whatever their origin, have been dismissed as a forgery since the articles by Irish writer Philip Graves in the London Times in 1921 which were also carried by The New York Times. Graves claimed the Protocols resembled a satire on Napoleon III by French lawyer Maurice Joly called Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu ('Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu') published in 1864. This is where the story usually ends. The Protocols were proved to be a forgery in The Times in 1921 - move along now, nothing to see here.
There is, however, other background to consider. Phillip Graves was a captain in British Army Intelligence who worked with 'Lawrence of Arabia', another British agent, who manipulated Palestinian Arabs to drive out the Ottoman Empire and open the way for the new Israel to hijack their land. Graves' uncle was Sir Robert Windham Graves, a British Consul in Turkey and financial advisor to the Turkish government who worked for Civil Intelligence in Cairo, Egypt.
The writer of the articles in The Times was connected to British Army Intelligence and there's more. Peter Grose, a writer with the Council on Foreign Relations, revealed in his 1994 book, Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles, that Philip Graves' 'source' for the articles was a 'Russian emigre' provided to him by ... Allen Dulles. What a coincidence. Dulles, a Council on Foreign Relations stalwart, later CIA chief and instigator of the satanic MKUltra mind control horror, 'discovered' his man while stationed at the US Embassy in post-Ottoman Turkey.
The end of the Ottoman Muslim empire (brought about by World War I) was crucial to the establishment of Israel because it included Palestine. Peter Grose said The Times extended a 'loan' to the 'emigre' on the understanding that it did not have to be paid back. An Internet commentator said of the Allen Dulles 'scoop':
This was quite an accomplishment for a young American embassy employee, to both prove the major anti-Jewish plan for world domination was a forgery as well as unilaterally keeping Lenin out of the United States so he could be transported to Russia to begin the communist revolution. Strange coincidences like this seemed to follow both Dulles brothers during their long careers in 'public service' - or should we say 'serving the Anglo-American interests headquartered in the City of London'.
Dulles and dodgy are interchangeable words and Rabbi Antelman said that the Council on Foreign Relations is America's most powerful pro-Israel lobby group and controlled by Sabbatian-Frankists.
The Times articles that trashed the Protocols were written by a British Army Intelligence operative using an unnamed source provided by the infamous liar and manipulator Allen Dulles and the source secured a loan from the newspaper he would not have to repay. Oh, nothing to question here, then. Now shut up you 'anti-Semite'!
Colin Holmes, a lecturer in economic history at the UK's Sheffield University, claimed to have identified the Dulles emigre as Michael Raslovleff, a 'self-identified anti-Semite', who gave the information to Graves because he didn't want to 'give a weapon of any kind to the Jews, whose friend I have never been'. Surely having a document circulating that was alleged to be proof of a 'Jewish plot' is what an 'anti-Semite' would want rather than seeking to trash its legitimacy? Anyway, that's some background and people will have to decide what they think.
–David Icke, "The Trigger", 2019
After reading the above from Icke I had renewed interest in the Protocols and started to do a little research.
Wikipedia is "certain" that the Protocols are a "forgery"; here is what they have to say:
Source material for the forgery consisted jointly of "Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu" (Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu), an 1864 political satire by Maurice Joly; and a chapter from Biarritz, an 1868 novel by the antisemitic German novelist Hermann Goedsche, which had been translated into Russian in 1872.
Interestingly, however, when one looks up Herman Goedsche and his book Biarritz (again, on wikipedia), one reads:
In his 1868 book Biarritz, Goedsche plagiarized a book by the French satirist Maurice Joly, The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu
Also "Dialogue aux enfers..." itself appears to be somewhat plagiarized:
Umberto Eco considered that Dialogue in Hell was itself plagiarised in part from a novel by Eugène Sue, Les Mystères du Peuple.
Interesting, what is going on here? But let's continue. Wikipedia says:
Identifiable phrases from Joly constitute 4% of the first half of the first edition, and 12% of the second half
[Australian researcher Peter Myer comments on the above:]
[“Cohn's (whose research the wikipedia entry makes use of) arithmetic is incorrect. The word-count of the parallel passages from the Protocols as listed by Bernstein, is 4,361, while the word-count of the Protocols is 26, 496. That is, the parallel passages comprise 16.45% of the Protocols; this is substantial, but still less than one sixth of the total.”]
So... where does the rest of the book come from?
Back to Wikipedia:
A major source for the Protocols was Der Judenstaat (1896) by Theodor Herzl, which was referred to as Zionist Protocols in its initial French and Russian editions. Paradoxically, early Russian editions of the Protocols assert that they did not come from a Zionist organization.
Stepanov is said to have published the Protocols first around the same time as Herzl's book was published. That's awfully tight timing.
Curious.
The wikipedia page makes no mention of the original Philip Stepanov publication, or Stepanov himself (big omission), but the source authors the page quotes from do. Interesting that.
Time to look into this Stepanov character.
No Wikipedia page that I can find.
The first thing I found was this:
He said that the "Protocols" was not Jewish-Masonic but a Zionist document secretly read at the Zionist Congress in Basle in 1897. (This especially is a foolish notion since an affidavit written by Philip Stepanov, the first publisher, proves that the "Protocols" was first brought to Russia two years before that Congress took place.) source
Two years before!? How can a book that heavily relies on plagiarizing from a book published in 1897, be published two years before in 1895?
I went hunting for this affidavit, and found quotes from it in another document.
A bombshell document...
...that I shall now quote from extensively (source at the end):
According to Philip Stepanov, formerly Procurator of the Moscow Synod, Chamberlain, and Privy Councillor, a copy of The Protocols was given to him in 1895 by his neighbour Maj. Alexis Sukhotin, Marshall of the town of Orel, who had been given his copy by Mlle Justine Glinka. (Sworn statement of Philip Stepanov, dated 17 April 1927).
Glinka, the daughter of a Russian general, had been in France since 1884, working for Gen. Orgevskii, secretary to the Minister of the Interior. Joseph Schorst, a Jewish member of the Mizraim Masonic Lodge in Paris, was in her employ, and offered to obtain a document which became known as The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion. Schorst later fled to Egypt where he was murdered. Returning to Russia, she gave a copy of the Protocols to Alexis Sukhotin, who showed it to Stepanov and Professor Sergius A. Nilus.
In wishing to refute the later allegation that The Protocols were formulated at the 1897 First Zionist Congress in Basle, Herman Bernstein, an early debunker of The Protocols, cites Stepanov’s sworn statement, the handwritten original being reproduced in Mrs Leslie Fry’s book Waters Flowing Eastward. Bernstein states:
"…This account of the history of the Protocols in Russia is accompanied by a facsimile affidavit made in 1927 by Philip Stepanov, one of the two friends to whom Sukhotin first showed the Protocols in Russia. Stepanov's telltale affidavit, translated from the Russian, reads as follows:
"In 1895 my neighboring estate owner in the province of Tula, retired Major Alexey Nikolayevitch Sukhotin, gave me a handwritten copy of the 'Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion.' He told me that a lady of his acquaintance (he did not mention her name), residing in Paris, had found them at the home of a friend of hers (probably of Jewish origin), and before leaving Paris, had translated them secretly, without his knowledge, and had brought one copy of that translation to Russia, and had given that copy to him, Sukhotin.
"At first I mimeographed one hundred copies of the Protocols, but that edition was difficult to read, and I resolved to have it printed somewhere, without mentioning the time, the city and the printer; I was helped in this by Arcady Ippolitovitch Kelepkovsky, who at that time was Privy Councillor with Grand Duke Sergey Alexandrovitch; he had these documents printed at the Provincial Printing Press; that was in 1897. S. A. Nilus reprinted these Protocols in full in his book, with his own commentaries.
"Philip Petrovitch Stepanov, former Procurator of the Moscow Synod Office; Chamberlain, Privy Councillor, and at the time of the publication of that edition, Chief of the district railway service of the Moscow-Kursk railway (in Orel).
"This is the signature of a member of the colony of Russian refugees at Stary and Novy Futog. "Witnessed by me, Stary Futog, April 17, 1927. "Chairman of the Administration of the Colony, "Prince Vladimir Galitzin." (Seal)
–(Herman Bernstein, The Truth About "The Protocols Of Zion": A Complete Exposure, 1971, pp. 37-40. Bernstein quotes from L. Fry's book Waters Flowing Eastward).
...there are internal indications that The Protocols date well prior to 1900-01. For e.g. a reference to "the Panama scandal" of 1888 which caused a furore in France during the 1890s. Also had The Protocols been contrived by Golovinsky ca. 1900 (see source below for more info) or at least sometime after 1896, it seems reasonable that anti-Semites would draw widely on references to Zionism, the First Zionist Congress taking place in 1897. However, there are no references to Zionism at all in The Protocols. The initial opinion of Nilus et al that The Protocols were not derived from the Zionist movement, but from a Jewish faction of Masonry, were correct.
It is particularly interesting that Cohn [historian Norman Cohn, quoted extensively in the wikipdeia entry] bases his refutation of The Protocols on the assertion that they are plagiarised from Maurice Joly’s Dialogues in Hell, and refutes the notion that The Protocols could emanate from the Alliance Israelite Universelle, yet fails to make any mention of the close association that existed between the Alliance’s Adolphe Cremieux and Joly. After all, most of the publicists for The Protocols seem to have considered the association, but Cohn, eager to nick-pick on various details, neglects refuting these most damning connections. Both Cohn and Bernstein were fully aware of Joly’s associations with Cremieux and with Masonry as stated in Mrs Fry’s book Waters Flowing Eastward (both mention the book) yet they say nothing of these associations. We must therefore assume that Mrs Fry’s assertions regarding Joly, Masonry and Cremieux are correct.
Whilst we shall shortly deal with the alleged parallels between passages of The Protocols and Joly’s work, we shall first deal with background of Joly that Cohn, Bernstein et al conspicuously avoid. Joly (1831-1878) had a family background in Masonry from his maternal grandfather. Studying law, he secured a post in he Ministry of the Interior. In 1860 he founded a newspaper, Le Palais, for lawyers and attorneys. The principal stockholders were: Jules Favre (Mason who served in the Gambetta Government, the so-called Government of National Defence, which arose after the fall of Napoleon III in 1870), Desmaret (Mason), Leblond (Mason), Adolphe Cremieux, Mason and head of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, a member of the Gambetta Government, of whom more later), Emmanuel Arago, Mason, serving with Gambetta), and Antoine Berryer (apparently the only non-Mason around Joly).
Joly’s politics were self-described as "socialist", with the need to accept "extreme means". With Cremieux he shared a hatred of Napoleon III. However what The Times, as well as subsequent critics of The Protocols do not mention is that Joly’s polemic against Napoleon III was itself predated by a similar work entitled Machiavelli, Montesquieu, Rousseau, which was written by Jacob Venedey and published in Berlin in 1850. Therefore, Joly was continuing a certain polemical line of thought rather than inventing it. If there are similarities between Joly and The Protocols, then there are also similarities with Venedey. All three for instance refer to the Hindu God Vishnu in parallel passages.
According to the expert testimony of Col. Fleischhauer at the 1935 Berne Trial, Joly was himself Jewish, his name having been originally Joseph Levy, Joly being concocted out of four letters of his true name. This testimony was said to have caused a sensation in the courtroom. When the plaintiffs produced a "baptismal certificate" to prove that Joly was not Jewish, it was dated December 1829, i.e. several years prior to Joly’s real date of birth according to his own account.
Since Venedey, a communist, takes a position antithetical to Joly, his champion being Machiavelli, we can see here a dialectical process in operation, that was brought to revolutionary perfection by Marx and the communists, and has arguably been used by the ‘Elders of Zion’. The dialectical strategy consists of promoting tension in society to achieve change. This includes the promotion of ideas and movements seemingly antithetical to ones own aims in the short term to advance long-range aims. Hence, the seemingly contradictory and self-destructive phenomenon of international bankers financing supposedly anti-capitalist revolutions to bring down traditional societies, as we shall see in due course. That the dialectical process is operative here can be inferred from the fact that Cremieux was the mentor of both Venedey and Joly. Hence the seemingly contradictory, antithetical positions of Venedey and Joly represent two sides of the programme of the ‘Learned Elder’.
Venedey (1805-1871) was a Jew who sought refuge in France, due to his revolutionary activities in Germany. He was removed from Paris by the police, but was able to return due to the intercession of Arago (whom we have seen was to become a stockholder in Joly’s newspaper) and Francois Mignet, both friends of Cremieux. Venedey was closely associated with Karl Marx and helped establish the Communist International, and was also active in the Masonic order Bauhutte.
Masonry, Illuminati & The Rite of Mizraim
Mrs Fry and other authorities on The Protocols have claimed that the documents were taken from a Lodge of the Masonic Rite of Mizraim, by one of its Jewish members, Joseph Schorst. Whilst this suggestion is of course rubbished out of hand by Cohn et al, once again the Protocols deniers remain strangely mute as to the role of both Cremieux and Joly in Mizraim.
Cremieux was a prominent member of Mizraim as well as Scottish Rite Masonry and the Grand Orient. Cremieux was a member of the Supreme Council of the Order of Mizraim. He also became Grand Master of the unified Grand Orient and Scottish Rite Masonry.
The Aegpytian Rite of Mizraim or Misraim was founded in Milan, Italy in 1805 and transferred to France in 1814. Mizraim is Hebrew for Egypt. Its origins reach back to the cabalistic magician Cagliostro, who was an initiate of the Illuminati. But the Misraim-Rite was (and still is) not accepted by Regular Freemasonry.
In 1862, another irregular rite, the Memphis Rite was introduced to the USA. On 4th June 1872, John Yarker introduced the Memphis-Rite to England. Under his jurisdiction, Memphis and Misraim came together. This unification was called The Antient and Primitive Rite of Memphis and Misraim, or Memphis-Misraim.
In 1902 Theodor Reuss, a German espionage agent, gained sanction from Yarker to install the Scottish Rite (33 degrees) and the "irregular" MM-Rites (90 and 97 degrees) in Germany. In 1917, Reuss introduced some of the Scottish Rite and MM degrees into the Ordo Templi Orientis, an occult society founded in 1906. This OTO was to be taken over by the infamous "Black Magician" and self-declared "Great Beast 666", Aleister Crowley. Crowley, a cabalist, was to write his own manifesto for a "New World Order", which he called The Book of the Law, expounding a Nietzschean doctrine of "Force and Fire" on the ruins of Christianity. Crowley saw his movement as being a continuation of the Illuminati and counted its founder Adam Weishaupt among a long list of "saints". A major difference of course is that Crowley did not have the resources and influence of Organised Jewry.
In 1870 the Rite of Mizraim was established in England under the authority of Cremieux. Bro. Little, one of those at the founding conference of Mizraim in London, on 28 December, stated:
"…Brother Cremieux, however, as a proof of his willingness to assist, sent to the meeting his diploma as a member of the French Grand College of Rites, and this diploma was placed upon the table during the proceedings, and was examined by several out of the hundred Masons present. It was also understood that Brother C.'s diploma invested him with the power to found rites or orders recognized by the Grand Orient of France (the Rite of Misraim being one)…"
The Freemason reported that a
"Supreme Council General of the 90°, had been regularly formed here 'under the authority conveyed in a diploma granted to the Illustrious Brother Cremieux, 33° of the Rite Ecossais, and a member of the Grand College of Rites in France.'"
Bernstein and Cohn rubbish any such notion of Masonic involvement in any conspiracy, including involvement in the French Revolution. This repudiation is necessary on their part, since Masonry plays a major factor in the conspiracy expounded in The Protocols. We shall consider the role of Masonry and the Illuminati in due course. Suffice it here to cite several eminent sources that can hardly be said to be anti-Semitic. Benjamin Disraeli, the Jewish Victorian era Prime Minister of Britain and intimate of the Rothschild banking dynasty, one of the mainstays of Jewish world influence, states in terms themselves reminiscent of The Protocols:
"When the secret societies, in February 1848, surprised Europe, they were themselves surprised by the unexpected opportunity, and so little capable were they of seizing the occasion, that had it not been for the Jews, who of late years unfortunately have been connecting themselves with these unhallowed associations, imbecile as were the governments the uncalled-for outbreak would not have ravaged Europe. But the fiery energy and the teeming resources of the children of Israel maintained for a long time the unnecessary and useless struggle. If the reader throws over the provisional governments of Germany, and Italy, and even of France, formed at that period, he will recognise everywhere the Jewish element. Even the insurrection, and defence, and administration of Venice, which, from the resource of statesmanlike moderation displayed, commanded almost the respect and sympathy of Europe, were accomplished by a Jew - Manini, who by the bye is a Jew who professes the whole of the Jewish religion, and believes in Calvary as well as Sinai, 'a converted Jew', as the Lombards styled him, quite forgetting, in the confusion of their ideas, that it is the Lombards who are the converts - not Manini."
Secondly we have a remarkable statement from Leon Trotsky, the Jewish revolutionary who became commander of the Red Army and with Lenin the most powerful man in the USSR:
"It was during that period that I became interested in freemasonry. ... In the eighteenth century freemasonry became expressive of a militant policy of enlightenment, as in the case of the Illuminati, who were the forerunners of the revolution; on its left it culminated in the Carbonari. Freemasons counted among their members both Louis XVI and the Dr. Guillotin who invented the guillotine. In southern Germany freemasonry assumed an openly revolutionary character, whereas at the court of Catherine the Great it was a masquerade reflecting the aristocratic and bureaucratic hierarchy. A freemason Novikov was exiled to Siberia by a freemason Empress. . I discontinued my work on freemasonry to take up the study of Marxian economics. ... The work on freemasonry acted as a sort of test for these hypotheses. ... I think this influenced the whole course of my intellectual development.".
Note that Trotsky not only refers to Masonry as a major factor in revolutionary ferment, but how it had also infiltrated the hierarchy of the old order it was about to overthrow, and that both the Illuminati and the Italian Carbonari were involved. Yet Bernstein and Cohn dismiss such sentiments when expressed by Robison et al as "fantasy". Bernstein also opines that the Illuminati were a "rival" of Masonry and did not survive its banning by the Elector of Bavaria. As we shall see, this opinion is naïve at best.
Thirdly, Bernard Lazare traces the Jewish influence on Masonry and the Illuminati, as follows:
"…It is true of course that there were Jews connected with Freemasonry from its birth, students of the Kabbala, as shown by certain rites which survive. It is very probable too that in the years preceding the French Revolution, they entered in greater numbers than ever, into the councils of the secret societies, becoming, indeed, themselves the founders of secret associations. There were Jews in the circle around Weishaupt, and a Jew of Portuguese origin, Martinez de Pasquales, established numerous groups of Illuminati in France and gathered a large number of disciples, who he instructed in the doctrines of reintegration. The lodges which Martinez founded were mystic in character, whereas the other orders of Freemasonry were, on the whole, rationalistic in their teachings. This might almost lead one to say that the secret societies gave expression in a way to the two fold nature of the Jew, on the one hand a rigid rationalism, on the other that pantheism which… often ended in a sort of Cabalistic theurgy. There would be little difficulty in showing how these two tendencies worked in harmony; how Cazotte, Cagliostro, Martinez [de Pasquales]… were practically in alliance with the Encyclopaedists and the Jacobins, succeeded in arriving at the same end, the undermining, namely, of Christianity."
The Protocols (if obtained in 1884) refer to the Panama Canal scandal years before the scandal had become public knowledge (in 1892). Therefore whoever wrote The Protocols must have had inside knowledge of high powered financial manipulation.
We have already noted that The Protocols did not originate with the Zionist movement. This was the original opinion of Nilus and others, although subsequently modified after Zionism became an influential movement among the Jews. In fact, the majority of the most prominent figures of World Jewry were opposed to Zionism, and some Orthodox Jews are still antagonistic on the basis that Israel was not to be recreated until after the advent of the King-Messiah.
The principal allegation levelled at the supposed forgers of The Protocols is that the purpose is to foment "anti-Semitism". However, the following is a remarkable passage from The Protocols in which it is said that "anti-Semitism" serves the purposes of the "Elders of Zion" in keeping the Jewish masses herded under their leadership.
As one might say today, this seems to be something of a "protection racket". The Jewish masses are being milked of millions of dollars every year to fill the coffers not only of Israel but of numerous "Jewish defence" organisations such as the Anti-Defamation League, which continually feed the Jews the line that a pogrom or a new "Holocaust" is just around the corner if Jews don’t keep donating. Here is what The Protocols say about "anti-Semitism". It is surely a strange passage if the authors are anti-Semites wishing to incite pogroms:
"Nowadays if any States raise a protest against us it is only pro forma at our discretion, and by our direction, for their antiSemitism is indispensable to us for the management of our lesser brethren. I will not enter into further explanations, for this matter has formed the subject of repeated discussions amongst us." (Prot. IX)
There is much, much more to this story; what I have quoted above are abridged excerpts.
The full document is a fascinating read and you can read it here:
The PROTOCOLS of ZION In Context By Dr. K. R. Bolton (PDF)
"But you yourselves perfectly well know that to produce the possibility of the expression of such wishes by all the nations it is indispensable to trouble in all countries the people's relations with their governments so as to utterly exhaust humanity with dissension, hatred, struggle, envy and even by the use of torture, by starvation, BY THE INOCULATION OF DISEASES, by want, so that the goyim see no other issue than to take refuge in our complete sovereignty in money and in all else. But if we give the nations of the world a breathing space the moment we long for is hardly likely ever to arrive."
Protocol 10
The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion
submitted by clemaneuverers to conspiracy [link] [comments]


2020.09.08 17:07 intellectualgulf The Miseducation of the American People

This is a theory that I will be working on until I figure out if it is accurate or not. Y'know, how the scientific process is supposed to be applied.
The theory is this: The american people have been purposefully miseducated for generations and the bizarre backwards behavior we see today is a symptom of this miseducation.
Whether or not the GOP is mainly responsible, whether this miseducation was politically aligned / inspired seems like a very important question given Nixon's presidency. Nixon is however just a symptom of a disease, and that disease is misinformation. The miseducation of the American people has been occurring for at least 100 years, but most likely has been ongoing since the founding of the country. Unfortunately freedom of speech protects liars, but that is the price we pay for democracy.
Misinformation is a human disease, and is directly responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of American citizens in 2020 alone. Trump appointed Jared Kushner, an uneducated unqualified man, to lead a Covid Task force AND Jared Kushner showed why being uneducated is dangerous, since he decided Covid would magically hurt democrats more than republicans.
I appear to be picking on Trump, but my theory is that conservatives of every color are to blame for this miseducation. It may be unfair to lay the blame entirely at the feet of conservative political parties, but we still can't have rational public debates about social policy without one of the miseducated screaming about communism.
The average american has no idea what socialism is and only vaguely understands it to be a dangerous / bad system of governance that opposing superpowers have historically claimed to follow. https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2019/10/07/in-their-own-words-behind-americans-views-of-socialism-and-capitalism/
The issue with this miseducation is it prevents reasonable logical debate. Of course any purely socialist society would fail, we are not a cooperative species. Any "true" form of government will fail when applied to humans because we are not rational or logical animals. We will inevitably smear everything in sight with feces and claim we have improved the world.
Miseducation has led to the average american not understanding how governments function at a fundamental level. A government is a group of people who agree to a set of rules that direct acceptable or unacceptable behavior, who organize around these rules, and who contribute resources to the group fund to support the enforcement of those rules. Every government is socialist since the definition of socialism is group ownership, and democratic governments are group owned. All guaranteed services provided by a government are group owned, and anyone who claims the government should not provide guaranteed services should leave since that is exactly what our founding fathers wanted it to be.
I'll repeat that last bit for clarity, the founding fathers intentionally created a group owned government to provide guaranteed services which include the postal service. If you consider yourself an "American" and believe that privatizing government services is a good idea, then you do not understand your government. This is reasonable given that many people were taught complete falsehoods before the internet came along, and many more falsehoods have been propagated by charlatans via the internet.
The only reason we can even tell that a massive amount of miseducation occurred in the United States is because so many of those people are very loud. The internet acts as a permanent record, and despite active revisionism / ongoing miseducation it still provides a clear view of the miseducation.
Each administration that chooses to use misinformation as a political weapon / tool ultimately damages the United States of America as they progressively weaken the citizens faith in truth. The american people at this point in time continue to act illogically despite access to the entirety of human knowledge at their fingertips. This is because the average American has been taught that Science and truth are not the same, and that "science" cannot be trusted to protect their interests. It does not matter that "their interests" are given to them by politicians who have shown an inability to think rationally or scientifically, since this is what they have been taught to accept.
This is yet another symptom of the disease, as people who otherwise are not mentally deficient make completely irrational or illogical choices / behaviors, such as continuing to elect corrupt and incompetent leaders.
The claims by Trump and other "modern" conservatives that the United States is or ever was intended to be a Christian nation is common. It really shouldn't be commonly held or believed since it is patently false, but it is another symptom of the disease of misinformation which is propagated in the United States through miseducation.
Data Sources
Statistics in the U.S. Department of Education: Highlights from the Past 120 Years
https://nces.ed.gov/pubs93/93442.pdf
US Department of Education website
https://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/fed/role.html
History
The original Department of Education was created in 1867 to collect information on schools and teaching that would help the States establish effective school systems. While the agency's name and location within the Executive Branch have changed over the past 130 years, this early emphasis on getting information on what works in education to teachers and education policymakers continues down to the present day.
The passage of the Second Morrill Act in 1890 gave the then-named Office of Education responsibility for administering support for the original system of land-grant colleges and universities. Vocational education became the next major area of Federal aid to schools, with the 1917 Smith-Hughes Act and the 1946 George-Barden Act focusing on agricultural, industrial, and home economics training for high school students.
World War II led to a significant expansion of Federal support for education. The Lanham Act in 1941 and the Impact Aid laws of 1950 eased the burden on communities affected by the presence of military and other Federal installations by making payments to school districts. And in 1944, the "GI Bill" authorized postsecondary education assistance that would ultimately send nearly 8 million World War II veterans to college.
The Cold War stimulated the first example of comprehensive Federal education legislation, when in 1958 Congress passed the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) in response to the Soviet launch of Sputnik. To help ensure that highly trained individuals would be available to help America compete with the Soviet Union in scientific and technical fields, the NDEA included support for loans to college students, the improvement of science, mathematics, and foreign language instruction in elementary and secondary schools, graduate fellowships, foreign language and area studies, and vocational-technical training.
The anti-poverty and civil rights laws of the 1960s and 1970s brought about a dramatic emergence of the Department's equal access mission. The passage of laws such as Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 which prohibited discrimination based on race, sex, and disability, respectively made civil rights enforcement a fundamental and long-lasting focus of the Department of Education. In 1965, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act launched a comprehensive set of programs, including the Title I program of Federal aid to disadvantaged children to address the problems of poor urban and rural areas. And in that same year, the Higher Education Act authorized assistance for postsecondary education, including financial aid programs for needy college students.
In 1980, Congress established the Department of Education as a Cabinet level agency. Today, ED operates programs that touch on every area and level of education. The Department's elementary and secondary programs annually serve nearly 18,200 school districts and over 50 million students attending roughly 98,000 public schools and 32,000 private schools. Department programs also provide grant, loan, and work-study assistance to more than 12 million postsecondary students.
When formulating this theory I was focused on education in the 1950s and later, but I am revising this theory as I read more. I think the best way to identify the miseducation will be to find writings that survived the shifts in belief. To suggest to one of Jefferson's contemporaries that he wanted religion involved with the United States government would have gotten you laughed out of the room. Jefferson was not above using the law to support his personal beliefs, but we have his letters with Madison where they congratulate one another on keeping religion out of the government [see comments].
I bring this up as it is a MAJOR point for conservatives despite being clearly historically wrong.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservatism_in_the_United_States#:~:text=Conservatism%20in%20the%20United%20States%20is%20a%20political%20and%20social,%2Dcommunism%2C%20pro%2Dindividualism%2C
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservatism_in_the_United_States#:~:text=Conservatism%20in%20the%20United%20States%20is%20a%20political%20and%20social,%2Dcommunism%2C%20pro%2Dindividualism%2C
Anyone who ascribes to believes in made up history is one of the miseducated.
20200915 - "The white man's burden"
In February 1899, British novelist and poet Rudyard Kipling wrote a poem entitled “The White Man’s Burden: The United States and The Philippine Islands.”
I had hoped I would need to search further than this to find my evidence, as if all the evidence is laying about like this it is a wonder no one else stumbled upon it before.
"The White Man's Burden" had a clear historical impact, and yet most people alive now would refuse to believe that their great great grandparent, great grandparent, or grandparent was assuredly raised with (and most likely promoted) Racist views.
This poem influenced the future) US President Theodore Roosevelt and Global Policy as a result: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5478/
We see contemporary refutations by famous figures such as Mark Twain, that were clearly ignored in favor of the "White Man" which in the USA was quite literal. "Predestination" was the idea that White Christians were beloved by God, and that God had made the world for White Men to rule".
This was such a common theme in those days that it was used to literally steal land from the natives. Really good evidence of how effective Christianity is as a moral spine to humanity in my thinking.
Just look at President Jackson's Message to Congress "On Indian Removal", December 6, 1830;
https://www.nps.gov/museum/tmc/MANZ/handouts/Andrew_Jackson_Annual_Message.pdf
We must admit that not just some, but most of our forefather's were selfish and racist people who had been indoctrinated by their conservative peers and teachers.
The reason I bring this poem up specifically is I found it in a Biology textbook. Which Biology textbook? Why only one of the most famous textbooks in history that no one remembers,:
A Civic Biology: Presented in Problems (usually referred to as just Civic Biology) was a biology textbook written by George William Hunter, published in 1914
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/39969/39969-h/39969-h.htm
Excerpt from The Economic Value of Trees. Protection and Regulation of Water Supply. : "It was such a strange, tremendous story, that of the Greek Poseidonia, later the Roman Pæstum. Long ago those adventuring mariners from Greece had seized the fertile plain, which at that time was covered with forests of great oak and watered by two clear and shining rivers. They drove the Italian natives back into the distant hills, for the white man's burden even then included the taking of all the desirable things that were being wasted by incompetent natives, and they brought over colonists—whom the philosophers and moralists at home maligned, no doubt, in the same pleasant fashion of our own day. And the colonists cut down the oaks, and plowed the land, and built cities, and made harbors, and finally dusted their busy hands and busy souls of the grime of labor and wrought splendid temples in honor of the benign gods who had given them the possessions of the Italians and filled them with power and fatness. "
Now one instance doesn't make a pattern, but that is clearly not a scientific phrase. Why is this Biology textbook, which was used to force schools to teach science, reinforcing a view that was known at the time to be wrong? Not only was this view known to be wrong, it had been known for at least 50 years.
At this point we can just accept that Christianity was only used as a way to excuse horrendous treatment of "savages", and that the people alive at the time knew this was true. The supporters of predestination at the time most likely were as vehement in their correctness as the neo-nazis of now.
So what is the picture I am painting? Why is this not in chronological order?
I am going to show you that not only is there a constant theme of "denying reality" among conservatives in the United States, but that it was purposeful refutation of correct information (truth).
Andrew Jackson did not consider the native population as human:
"And is it supposed that the wandering savage has a stronger attachment to his home than the settled, civilized Christian? Is it more afflicting to him to leave the graves of his fathers than it is to our brothers and children? Rightly considered, the policy of the General Government toward the red man is not only liberal, but generous. He is unwilling to submit to the laws of the States and mingle with their population. To save him from this alternative, or perhaps utter annihilation, the General Government kindly offers him a new home, and proposes to pay the whole expense of his removal and settlement."
I can say Jackson didn't consider "the red man" as human, because despite this claim that the "red man" would be relocated and all costs covered Jackson would end up authorizing the murder of many natives during his presidency. Just look at how Jackson promoted an incorrect view of the Native American people being "wandering savages" with no connection to the land.
"Whatabout" arguments bring up questions of "ownership", inheritance of land among Native American Tribes, and wars among the Tribes just before the "settling" of the Americas. My counter to this is the same as always, according to your logic if I want your house I just need to prove you haven't owned it "very long".
This argument is at its core insisting that the ownership of a landmass depends on how recently the government on that landmass changed leadership. The fact is that the native American people had been living on the continent without european intervention for at least 1,000 years:
Just for example he Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherokee
This means that the Cherokee have a stronger claim to England than the English according to the "recent ownership theory", since the people the English descended from didn't arrive in England until after 400 CE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Saxon_settlement_of_Britain
Honestly if you or anyone you know believes the ridiculously common conservative argument, please point out to them that based on the concept of ownership being based on time spent in a region, the Native American people owned half the world before the English stood up their bastion of failing Rome in the United Kingdom. Not only that, but the Native American people had a rich history that quite literally was all but destroyed between the 16th and 18th centuries.
Jesus H Christ, if you want to see even more proof that we have simply trained ourselves to be idiotic, look at this History Channel Page that supposedly tells the timeline of the Native American People: https://www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/native-american-timeline
It starts in 1492! That is not a history of the native american people, that is a history of European interaction with the Native American People's. This is a perfect example of how our common knowledge and supposed history is just conservative garbage.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Native_Americans_in_the_United_States
Looking at the actual Wikipedia page (look out for conservative Christian revisionism), we see that the people who populated the American continents lived there for millenia. "Western Christian Civilization" wasn't even a shitstain in homo sapiens diaper when the American continents were fully settled and replete with grand empires.
Not only did Jackson purposefully mis-inform the American people about the selfishness and evil of the "Indian Removal Act", but he used similar misinformation tactics to disguise other political agendas:
" Mexico, having for six years carried on against Texas a marauding war only, and that upon the most savage principles, inconsistant with all principles of civilised warfare, and against which all civilised nations which have acknowledged the Independence of Texas ought to unite, and by peaceful means, if it could, put it down, and if this could not be obtained peaceably, then all civillised and christian powers are bound to unite upon christian principle to put an end to this savage and inhuman war. The United States having been the first nation that acknowledged Texian Independence, are we not bound to be the first to boldly step forward to put an end to this savage maurading war. I think so. Texas harassed, and her means of war limitted presents herself to the united states to be annexed to, and protected by the United States. There being no embodied army marching against Texas for reconquest, great Britain trying to obtain the Liberation of the slaves in Texas for the avowed purpose of coercing the south and west into this measure by destroying the vallue of this property and opening a way for our slaves to run away to Texas, is [it] not time for the south and west to take the alarm, and as Texas has presented herself for voluntary annexation, which at once shuts the door against this impending evil, and secures Neworleans in case of a war with England, can it be, could it be, that any one could seriously suppose that the whole south and west would not unite upon this important subject, and with one voice cry out annexation. "
"I am very feeble, but excited by the subject, mortified at Mr. V.B. letter and Col. Bentons, for their is no evidence of ever the time being more propitious than the present, the necessitous situation of Texas, the prospects of the encouragement posponement will give to Mexico, with the secrete aid of great Britain and the consequences, makes my tears flow with regret. Texas may feel herself insulted and neglected by the refusal of the U. States and make a treaty with great Britain ruinous to the south west and to the safety of the Union, when we will have to fight both great Britain and mexico—on such an event what curses must fall upon all who refused to receive Texas."
It's almost like Andrew Jackson was a Racist, who while opposed / refuted by some of his contemporaries, the average American clearly supported Predestination.
It is no wonder that with this amount misinformation use already present by the 7th President we see a President today who does nothing but lie. Since conservatives value Opinion over Truth we can no longer trust anything that they claim, and we shouldn't have been letting these views infect out people for this long to begin with.

Special Interest Groups Damaged our Government:

This should be a perfectly reasonable debate with no partisanship or issues of religion / emotion (/s).
This is going to be a shit show, just be prepared.
Academics have almost universally responded poorly to this hypothesis, that the American People have been Miseducated for Generations.
It is quite possible that the misinformation campaigns which turned our nation into an "Idiocracy" were not exclusive to education centers.
Searching through the NY Times you can find many examples of Christian special interest groups attacking politicians for failing to align with their goals:
1832 Wig Paper lauding the destruction of Irish Culture- Constitutional Whig. [volume], September 28, 1824
1841 Indiana State sentinel. [volume], October 19, 1841: 1841 anti-irish sentiment

1840 - Mr. Van Buren has shown he is in favor of Free Negroes and Slaves to swear in Court against WHITE MEN! (emphasis theirs) The Hawk-eye and Iowa patriot., September 10, 1840
1842 article noting the South's prediliction for lynching, and arguing that good christians are not racist
1856 - christian editor taken to court for printing abolitionist sentiments in Va
1907 -white people are great even when they oppress their dark skinned brothers
1919 - princeton journal reference to "Irish need not apply". If you are of Irish heritage, your ancestors were called "white The Princeton union. [volume], December 04, 1919, Page 4
1949 - A congressman from Ohio tells other Congressmen he had never seen any segregation: https://history.house.gov/People/Detail/15130?ret=True
2005 - The United States is still fighting idiots pushing their religion in tax funded schools: https://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/20/science/sciencespecial2/judge-bars-intelligent-design-from-pa-classes.html

Textbooks which Promoted Conservative Christian Political Goals

1842 - The Religious instruction of the Negroes in the United States
ORIGIN on THE AMERICAN INDIANS. Hence it seems, at first glance, almost impossible that it should have been reached, in an age when ships Were small‘ and frail, when the mariner’s compass was unknown and the sailor dared not trust himself out of sight of land. This led men to suppose that the inhabitants of America did not descend from Adam and Eve, but from a race previously created. Such a theory’ is plainly contrary to the Bible record, nor is it needed to account for the settlement of America. .8. Later discoveries have brought to light a fact unknown to geographers three hundred years ago, that America wi- dens rapidly in the north, and there juts out into the ocean till it comes within thirty-six ‘miles of Asia. , As a current sets -towards the American shore, the passage thither can be readily made even in rude vessels. Boats may have been driven over by stress of weather, and the continent thus have been discovered without design. But there was a still‘ easier means of communication. In severe seasons, ,Behring’s Strait is frozen over. , ‘Many varieties of animals have passed on the ice from one continent to the other; and the first occupants of America, led by curiosity, or driven by violence,- may have reached the new world in the same manner. 9. At what time this event took place, we are not informed. History makes no mention of it. It is probable that it occurred at an early date, not many centuries after the dispersion at Babel and the consequent emigration from the plain of Shi’nar.
1875 Analysis of Civil Government
There is little need of comment "on this clause‘‘.‘‘ No “man can Well doubt the propriety of placing a President of the" United States’ under the most solemn obligations to preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution. It is "a suitable ‘pledge of his fidelity and responsibility to his 'country', and creates upon his conscience a deep ‘sense duty, by an appeal at once, in the presence of God and man, to the most sacred and solemn sanctions Which can operate upon the human mind
Oath. A solemn aflirmation or declaration, before a competent tribunal or ofiieer, to tell the truth, appealing to God for the truth of what is asserted.
1875 - Politics for young adults
TO PARENTS AND TEACHERS. to be a good citizen of the United States one ought to be imbued with the spirit of Christianity, and to believe in and act upon the teachings of Jesus. He condemned self-seeking, covetousness, hypocrisy, class distinctions, envy, malice, undue and ignoble ambition
Old textbooks:
ATTITUDES REVEALED IN SUBJECT MATTER Since geography textbooks dealt extensively with people and customs, the opportunity was great for authors to reveal their attitudes regarding the various peoples and their ways of living. In many geographies, especially in the earlier ones, the content revealed that the attitudes of the authors were often biased. Religious Attitudes. The earliest geographies were written when our country was still dominantly Protestant and the academic leaders were either trained as ministers or at least deeply religious. J edidiah Morse and Elijah Parish were both Congregational ministers. Not even all Protestant groups were equally respected. For example, in the first American written geography, Morse in 1784 referred to the Presbyterians and Lutherans as “numerous and respectable.” Parish, in enumerating the religious groups, began with small letters the words Baptists, Methodists, Quakers, and Catholics, but began with capital letters Presbyterian, Congregationalists, and Lutherans. ‘ Many of the early books particularly contained unfavorable comments about other religions than Protestants. Morse in his 1790 edition referred to Roman Catholicism in Spain as “of most bigoted, superstitious, and tyrannical character.” Dwight (1806), Parish (1810), and Adams (1818) used the term “Pop- ery” in referring to Roman Catholicism. Davies (1805) claimed that the priests in Ireland ruled with “blind superstition and ignorance.” Many other early geographies contained similar statements. Later several geography textbooks were written by Catholic
GEOGRAPHIES Q13 authors which were equally biased against Protestantism. Among these were texts by Pinnock (1853) and Sadlier (1880). The latter, in referring to religious conditions in Ireland, said: England abandoned the Catholic faith in the 16th century, and to this country belongs the ignoble distinction of having oppressed and persecuted the Irish nation with a barbarity unparalleled in the history of man’s inhumanity to man. Most Protestant authors referred to the Protestants in Euro- pean countries with respect. Parish (1810) said, “The Scotch clergy are men of learning and piety.” Woodbridge (1835) said, in referring to the Scots, “They are remarkable for knowledge and morality, produced by their numerous schools, and their at- tention to public worship.” In referring to non-Christian religions, likewise, uncompli- mentary statements were often made. A number of authors re- ferred to Mahomet as an “imposter.” Morse (1800) wrote: “In a word, the contagion spread over Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Persia; Mahomet, from a deceitful hypocrite, became the most powerful monarch in his time.” Warren in 1872 referred to Mohammed as a “false prophet.” Uncomplimentary statements were also made about the religions in Japan and India. Reform Attitudes. The teaching of religion and morality was really the chief aim of education in early American schools. This aim was even dominant. in geography textbooks. Thus many forms of behavior which the authors considered immoral were severely condemned. Alcohol. Morse (1790) believed “in proportion as the use of beer increases, in the same proportion will the use of spiritous liquors decrease. This will be a happy exchange.” Parish (1810) condemned the “numerous Taverns,” and “grogshops.” Several condemned the sale of liquors to Indians.
submitted by intellectualgulf to u/intellectualgulf [link] [comments]


2020.09.04 10:10 ChristianStatesman When could the fictional island of Frisland, which was a Lordship of the British Monarch with its own parliament, have succesfully became an independent kingdom? It was annexed by England in 1580 from Denmark-Norway


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Map of Frisland: https://aijaa.com/hA25rI
Frislandhad briefly been a secessionist kingdom under Henry I Sinclair, earl of Orkney (Zichmni) who had conquered it and the Faroe Islands from Norway in 1380, but by 1387 Henry had submitted under Norwegian rule again and was granted the title Prince of Frisland as the vassal of the king of Norway, later Denmark-Norway, and the earls of Orkney continued to rule F. as princes until 1472, when Denmark lost Orkney and Shetland Islands to Scotland, and decided that the Scottish noble family could not rule F. any longer, and a royal governor was sent to rule F. instead.
In 1578, Sir Martin Frobisher landed in F. to claim it for England, and was able to persuade the local grandees to call a folkmoot, which declared that F. to submit under the rule of Elizabeth, Queen of England and disavow the king of Denmark, due to the harsh treatment of F. by the Danish Crown, comparable to Danish policy towards the Faroe Islands and Iceland.
In 1580, F. was organized as a Lordship in personal union with the crown of England, akin to the Lordship of the Isle of Man, and Frobisher was installed as the first governor.
The Folkmoot was made into a permanent institution similar to Tynwald of the Isle of Man. It was made bicameral, with the Council of Nobles consisting of the clan chiefs ruling local fiefdoms (höfđingi, called counts by the English) as well as other knights banneret, known as bannerets, as the upper chamber and the Folkmoot, consisting of the knights of the shire and city and borough deputies, as the lower house. F. was therefore internally self-governing.
Upon suggestion of Elizabeth's secretary of state, Sir Francis Walsingham, Lutheranism was replaced by Presbyterianism as the state religion of F. since Dr John Dee, the advocate for English annexation of F. had discussed the affairs of F. with him and Walsingham was a friend and patron of Thomas Cartwright, the founder of English Presbyterianism, whose socio-religious ideas, including a society ruled on the basis of Biblical law, were then hotly debated in England. Walsingham wanted to test his friend's ideas to convince the hostile Queen to embrace them in England, and Frisland and the new colonies in Magellanica were perfect laboratories to test them in practice. F. therefore became a strictly Calvinist theonomic (God's law-abiding) theocracy. It soon became a crucial part of the Frislandic identity and Frislanders started to view themselves as the New Israel, God's chosen people in covenant with Him.
Frobisher had brought up to 500 English colonists in 1576-78, and significant English immigration occurred after 1580, largely Anglicizing the previously Norse-Gaelic F. which also had a Scottish population dating back to the Sinclair era.
After the Restoration, English government targeted Puritan colonies in New England for their Bible-based legislation, and Connecticut was forced to reform its laws away from the Biblical precepts in the 1750s.
No doubt the Frislandic theocracy started to offend the "enlightened" sensibilities of the British government, and simultaneously with Connecticut it demanded F. to modify its legislation, which deeply offended Frislanders.
Could F. have therefore have declared independence already in 1772 and invited Fredrik Carl Sinclair, a nobleman from Sweden, to the throne of Frisland? Or is it too early a date?
OTL the identification of Zichmni, King of Frisland with Henry I Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, only dates from a book by Georg Forster published in 1784.
Or could F. rather have won its independence more realistically during the Irish Rebellion of 1798, Napoleonic Wars, around 1892 when Thomas Sinclair gave a speech claiming that his ancestor discovered America and from that time date the earliest pictures of fictional kings of Ruritania available to be used as kings of F.? Or around 1905 inspired by the independence of Norway from Sweden? Or only around 1920 as Ireland did?
Or at some other date? Your thoughts are appreciated heartily!
submitted by ChristianStatesman to HistoryWhatIf [link] [comments]


2020.09.04 10:02 ChristianStatesman When could the fictional island of Frisland, which was a Lordship of the British Monarch with its own parliament, have succesfully became an independent kingdom? It was annexed by England in 1580 from Denmark-Norway

📷
Map of Frisland: https://aijaa.com/hA25rI
Frisland had briefly been a secessionist kingdom under Henry I Sinclair, earl of Orkney (Zichmni) who had conquered it and the Faroe Islands from Norway in 1380, but by 1387 Henry had submitted under Norwegian rule again and was granted the title Prince of Frisland as the vassal of the king of Norway, later Denmark-Norway, and the earls of Orkney continued to rule F. as princes until 1472, when Denmark lost Orkney and Shetland Islands to Scotland, and decided that the Scottish noble family could not rule F. any longer, and a royal governor was sent to rule F. instead.
In 1578, Sir Martin Frobisher landed in F. to claim it for England, and was able to persuade the local grandees to call a folkmoot, which declared that F. to submit under the rule of Elizabeth, Queen of England and disavow the king of Denmark, due to the harsh treatment of F. by the Danish Crown, comparable to Danish policy towards the Faroe Islands and Iceland.
In 1580, F. was organized as a Lordship in personal union with the crown of England, akin to the Lordship of the Isle of Man, and Frobisher was installed as the first governor.
The Folkmoot was made into a permanent institution similar to Tynwald of the Isle of Man. It was made bicameral, with the Council of Nobles consisting of the clan chiefs ruling local fiefdoms (höfđingi, called counts by the English) as well as other knights banneret, known as bannerets, as the upper chamber and the Folkmoot, consisting of the knights of the shire and city and borough deputies, as the lower house. F. was therefore internally self-governing.
Upon suggestion of Elizabeth's secretary of state, Sir Francis Walsingham, Lutheranism was replaced by Presbyterianism as the state religion of F. since Dr John Dee, the advocate for English annexation of F. had discussed the affairs of F. with him and Walsingham was a friend and patron of Thomas Cartwright, the founder of English Presbyterianism, whose socio-religious ideas, including a society ruled on the basis of Biblical law, were then hotly debated in England. Walsingham wanted to test his friend's ideas to convince the hostile Queen to embrace them in England, and Frisland and the new colonies in Magellanica were perfect laboratories to test them in practice. F. therefore became a strictly Calvinist theonomic (God's law-abiding) theocracy. It soon became a crucial part of the Frislandic identity and Frislanders started to view themselves as the New Israel, God's chosen people in covenant with Him.
Frobisher had brought up to 500 English colonists in 1576-78, and significant English immigration occurred after 1580, largely Anglicizing the previously Norse-Gaelic F. which also had a Scottish population dating back to the Sinclair era.
After the Restoration, English government targeted Puritan colonies in New England for their Bible-based legislation, and Connecticut was forced to reform its laws away from the Biblical precepts in the 1750s.
No doubt the Frislandic theocracy started to offend the "enlightened" sensibilities of the British government, and simultaneously with Connecticut it demanded F. to modify its legislation, which deeply offended Frislanders.
Could F. have therefore have declared independence already in 1772 and invited Fredrik Carl Sinclair, a nobleman from Sweden, to the throne of Frisland? Or is it too early a date?
OTL the identification of Zichmni, King of Frisland with Henry I Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, only dates from a book by Georg Forster published in 1784.
Or could F. rather have won its independence more realistically during the Irish Rebellion of 1798, Napoleonic Wars, around 1892 when Thomas Sinclair gave a speech claiming that his ancestor discovered America and from that time date the earliest pictures of fictional kings of Ruritania available to be used as kings of F.? Or around 1905 inspired by the independence of Norway from Sweden? Or only around 1920 as Ireland did?
Or at some other date? Your thoughts are appreciated heartily!
submitted by ChristianStatesman to HistoricalWhatIf [link] [comments]


2020.09.01 08:52 leowr The /r/books book club selection for September is D-Day Girls by Sarah Rose

From Goodreads:
The dramatic, untold true story of the extraordinary women recruited by Britain's elite spy agency to sabotage the Nazis and pave the way for Allied victory in World War II.
In 1942, the Allies were losing, Germany seemed unstoppable, and every able man in England was fighting. Churchill believed Britain was locked in an existential battle and created a secret agency, the Special Operations Executive (SOE), whose spies were trained in everything from demolition to sharp-shooting. Their job, he declared, was "to set Europe ablaze!" But with most men on the frontlines, the SOE did something unprecedented: it recruited women. Thirty-nine women answered the call, leaving their lives and families to become saboteurs in France. Half were caught, and a third did not make it home alive.
In D-Day Girls, Sarah Rose draws on recently declassified files, diaries, and oral histories to tell the story of three of these women. There's Odette Sansom, a young mother who feels suffocated by domestic life and sees the war as her ticket out; Lise de Baissac, an unflappable aristocrat with the mind of a natural leader; and Andrée Borrel, the streetwise organizer of the Paris Resistance. Together, they derailed trains, blew up weapons caches, destroyed power and phone lines, and gathered crucial intelligence—laying the groundwork for the D-Day invasion that proved to be the turning point in the war.
This month we will be reading D-Day Girls: The Spies Who Armed the Resistance, Sabotaged the Nazis, and Helped Win World War II by Sarah Rose. Sarah will be joining us for an AMA on Wednesday September 30th.
As always, the dates of and links to the discussion threads can be found in the sticky comment on this post. You are welcome to read at your own pace. Don't worry about joining later on in the month. Usually it is pretty easy to catch up, but you are always welcome to join the discussions a little later.
For those of you that are viewing reddit on the redesigned desktop version you will see an option on this post to 'follow'. If you 'follow' the book club post you will receive a notification when a new post, a discussion thread for book club, is added to the collection. It is still being tested, so it may not be perfect, but perhaps it will make it easier to join the discussions when they go up.
p.s. If you are interested in our previous selections you can find an overview here.
submitted by leowr to books [link] [comments]


2020.08.30 09:53 sardarbhagat Fifty people who have affected Hindus and Hinduism in a negative way – Francois Gautier

In a recently posted article on François Gautier’s website, he lists the names of 50 people who can be described as enemies of Hindus and Hinduism. He says that he created the list, which is incomplete, without malice aforethought.
Here is the list, 50 Biggest Enemies of Hindus (Dead or Alive), including the reasons he gives to justify his choice of enemies — Editor
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, who along with a few hundred men, stood his ground against the most powerful emperor of his times, has practically no place in Indian history books and is often described as a petty chieftain or even a plunderer. So is Maharana Pratap, the only Rajput who fought against the Mughals and actually defeated Akbar in Haldighati.
Hindus tend to merge and melt wherever they live—and in the process, lose some of their identities and togetherness. And finally the most deadly and vicious intellectuals that we have reviewed above, are Hindus most of them. They are the ones that should be targeted, in a non-violent but firm manner. – Francois Gautier, 13 June 2016. The list has been edited by a staff writer at Newsgram and again by the editor of Bharata Bharati. See the original here.
submitted by sardarbhagat to IndiaConversionMafia [link] [comments]


2020.08.30 01:20 kiniiru About to go long distance for at least a year and I'm dreading it

Me and my boyfriend have been dating for three months now. Even before we got together, it was clear and I always communicated to him that I would leave for England to enter a master program for at least a year. He said I was worth it and we'd work through it.
With his work, we more often than not only see each other during the weekend. That's more than most couples, especially LDR, can probably manage, but jeez, I already miss him so much even if we're only apart for a few days. I'm already stressed out by organizing everything, anxious about living in another country all by myself, and I know I'll just miss him so much. I thrive on closeness and a relationship, I'm not the most secure person and he just adds so much to my life. I'm not sure how everything will be with him and my other safety nets not around.
He's worth it, that's for sure, and I'm willing to work through everything if it means we can continue where we left off after my studies, but I'm dreading it. I already miss him even though he's still around, and we only have a few more days together before I leave.
I'm really hoping this sub and its stories can give me the strength and support to endure this. I guess not knowing how it will truly turn out to be is still the most difficult part right now. But I love him. So he's worth it.
submitted by kiniiru to LongDistance [link] [comments]


2020.08.29 15:04 CaspianX2 September 2020 Noteworthy Releases on Switch

I occasionally see people respond to my weekly Upcoming Releases posts with comments like “it's just a buncha' shovelware”, and I don't think people realize the potential in some of the games they're dismissing. And especially with Nintendo stepping back from their regular Nintendo Directs, I think there's likely to be a fair number of Switch players asking themselves, “so now what?”
Because of this, before we jump into the next month, I'm going through the list of upcoming games for that month that we know about, and highlighting the ones that have a strong chance of being worth paying attention to, as well as a brief snippet about the game explaining why it's worth watching.
I will specifically only be highlighting games that have a reasonably strong pedigree, or that are otherwise particularly noteworthy in some way beyond “this looks good, it could be interesting...”. This means that I'll likely be mentioning a lot of ports, as it's easier to know a game will likely be good if it was already good on another platform (I'm including games that scored 75 or higher on Metacritic on other platforms, 80% positive or higher on Steam, and/or 4 or higher rating on Google Play store). I'll also mention games whose developer has a decent track record for producing quality.
Oh, and before getting into the games, I should note that this is just the list we have available right now – there are likely to be new games announced after this list comes out, as well as games on this list that get delayed. Also, I should note that this is not a list of the only games worth getting on the Switch this month – just the ones that I feel can be backed up with more than just “feels” given what we know now. And of course, since these games aren't released yet, I obviously can't know they're good, they just look promising.
Two things I want to touch on for this month's list in particular. Firstly, this list includes a lot of games with vague “Summer” or “Q3” release dates, since September is the last month that could be considered either of those things. At least as far as anything we know, these games are announced to be coming out before the end of September, though of course these could also be targets that we'll find out have moved. Secondly, a lot of the games in this month's list have prior releases without a Metacritic score. I'm actually looking at this as a good exercise to see exactly how indicative Steam and Google Play user reviews are for predicting critical review scores of a Switch port. I suppose we'll see!
Anyway, on to the list!
9/2 – Piffle: A Cat Puzzle Adventure (Trailer) (No Metacritic Score as of 9/19/20) – Mobile developer Mighty Games has only one game on Metacritic with enough reviews to have a Metacritic score, but that score (for iOS game Shooty Skies) is a solid 83. However, that's not to say Piffle: A Cat Puzzle Adventure is an unknown entity – the game has been out on mobile devices since 2018, and currently has an average user rating of 4.3 on the Google Play store. This game is a cutesy take on the sort of Puzzle game where you release a multitude of balls (or in this case, cats) at an angle to try to take out blocks above. Clearly, this game is going to be on the more casual side of things, but if you want to get an idea what to expect, you can try it out on your smartphone now.
9/3 – Good Pizza, Great Pizza (Trailer) (No Metacritic Score as of 9/19/20) – This arcadey restaurant game (compare to Cook! Serve! Delicious!! 2 and the various “Cooking Tycoon” games already on Nintendo Switch) was released on iOS in 2014 and PC in 2018, and while neither version has enough reviews to have a Metacritic score, the PC version currently has an 87% approval rating on Steam with 230 reviews. This game distinguishes itself from other games in the genre with its clever, funny writing and bizarre customers.
Announced on 9/3 - 9/3 – Spellbreak (Trailer) (Metacritic Score: 76) – I didn't list this in my predictions but it did not have a release listed prior to its release. This is a free-to-play online battle royale third-person shooter that reviewers said was a nice magical twist on the genre.
9/4 – Dirt Trackin 2 (Trailer) (No Metacritic Score as of 9/19/20) – This game was released some while ago on mobile devices (I'm having trouble seeing when, exactly), and while the graphics on this racing game are nothing special, it currently has an impressive 4.7 average userscore on Google Play, with over 1800 reviews. That's not the only thing noteworthy about this game, either – it looks like this game will support races for 20 players online. Given how much the Nintendo Switch needs quality racing games, hopefully this will help to fill that need.
9/4 – Lair of the Clockwork God (Trailer) (No Metacritic Score as of 9/19/20) – The PC version of this game released earlier this year, and currently has a score of 84 on Metacritic. This game is a clever hybrid of point-and-click adventure games and platformers, and critics loved its silly, “stupid” sense of humor and unique meshing of gameplay elements.
9/4 – Paradise Killer (Trailer) (Metacritic Score: 80) – This is a game I missed in my original predictions, but list here for those looking at this article after the fact. This is an open-world graphic adventure game where you're interviewing various suspects on an island to get to the bottom of a murder mystery.
9/4 – Roommates (Trailer) (No Metacritic Score as of 9/19/20) – The PC version of this game released back in 2014, but never got enough reviews to get a Metacritic score. However, players enjoyed it – the game currently has an 80% approval rating on Steam, with 80 reviews. This game appears to be a dating sim/life management sim-style game where players must manage the schedule, chores, and social life of a student in a college dorm.
9/7 – Shaolin vs Wutang (Trailer) (No Metacritic Score as of 9/19/20) – This game was released on PC in 2018, and while it doesn't have enough reviews for a Metacritic score, it currently has a 92% approval rating on Steam with over 750 reviews. This game is billed as a “indie casual fighting game”, aiming to appeal to a wider range of players than just fighting game diehards.
9/8 – AVICII Invector (Trailer) (Metacritic Score: 82) – When this game released on other platforms in 2019, it got scores ranging from 79-82. This is a music-rhythm game featuring the music of AVICII, with a stylish futuristic presentation. If you want to give it a try, this game has a demo out on the eShop right now.
9/8 – Meganoid (Trailer) (No Metacritic Score as of 9/19/20) – Mobile developer Orange Pixel's one game to get rated on Metacritic, Gunslugs 2, got a Metacritic score of 78. Meanwhile, this game released on mobile devices and currently has a Google Play user rating of 4.0 or 4.4 (depending on the version you go for). This is a challenging procedurally-generated action-platformer. Watching video, it kinda' puts me in mind of a fast-paced sci-fi Spelunky, though that's just speculation. Anyway, one of the versions of this game on Android is free with ads, so you can give it a try if you're curious.
9/8 – OkunoKA Madness (Trailer) (Metacritic Score: 83) – This game's predecessor, OkunoKA, got a Metacritic score of 80, and hopefully this follow-up will be just as good. This game is a super-fast challenging platformer.
9/8 – RPG Maker MV (Trailer) (No Metacritic Score as of 9/19/20) – This game, first released on PC in 2015, has yet to get enough reviews to get a Metacritic score, but players absolutely love it – Steam users give this game a 92% approval rating with over 3500 reviews. As the name indicates, the RPG Maker series is a powerful toolset for creating and sharing your own custom-made RPGs. What's more, the PC version currently costs $80, while the Nintendo Switch version will be selling for $50, making the Switch version the less-expensive alternative, for a change. Even cooler, you don't even need to buy the game to enjoy other players' creations – NIS America plans to release a free player alongside this game allowing anyone with a Nintendo Switch to download and play the RPGs made by other players (sadly, no cross-play with the PC version, though), so RPG fans without a creative bone in their body will have a lot to look forward to as well.
9/10 – Death and Taxes (Trailer) (No Metacritic Score as of 9/19/20) – This game released on PC earlier this year, and hasn't gotten enough reviews to get a Metacritic score. However, the reaction of players has been positive – the game currently has a 90% positive rating on Steam, with over 900 user reviews. This is a game that puts you in the role of Death, which is apparently a desk job that has you stamping paperwork and organizing your desktop. I get a vibe from this one that reminds me a lot of Papers, Please, so those who enjoyed that game may want to give this one a look.
9/10 – Hotshot Racing (Trailer) (Metacritic Score: 75) – This is a game I missed in my original predictions, but list here for those looking at this article after the fact. This is a retro-style racing game that critics praised for its arcade-style racing and multiplayer play.
9/10/20 – Deleveled (Trailer) (No Metacritic Score as of 9/19/20) – Developer Quantum Astrophysicists Guild has a solid track record when it comes to quality, boasting an average Metacritic score of 76. This game is a Puzzle-Platformer that has players controlling two squares above and below a series of platforms that must transfer their velocity to help each other past obstacles.
9/10 – MO:Astray (Trailer) (No Metacritic Score as of 9/19/20) – This game, first released on PC in 2019, was overlooked by critics, but it has an impressive 94% approval rating on Steam, with over 2250 user reviews. This is a platformer that has you playing a sticky ball of goo that can fling itself around and stick to walls.
9/10 – Tomoyo After -It's a Wonderful Life- CS Edition (Trailer) (No Metacritic Score as of 9/19/20) – This visual novel takes place after the events of Clannad, which got a Metacritic score of 83, and while the PC version of this game, released in 2016, does not have enough reviews for a Metacritic score, players are universally thrilled with it – the game has a 94% approval rating with 325 reviews. This game's story follows a pair of young lovers whose desire to spend a nice Summer together keep getting trampled on by unexpected house guests. Interestingly, this game also houses a game-within-a-game Tactics-style Strategy-RPG that players can partake in as well, for those looking for something beyond the standard visual novel gameplay.
9/10 – Wintermoor Tactics Club (Trailer) (No Metacritic Score as of 9/19/20) – This combination Tactics-Style RPG and Visual Novel (hey, didn't I just post about one of those?) got a Metacritic score of 81 when it released on PC earlier this year. Critics praised its lighthearted story and accessible gameplay.
9/11 – Firework (Trailer) (No Metacritic Score as of 9/19/20) – This game, released on PC in 2018, was overlooked by reviewers, and doesn't have many user reviews on Steam yet, but those who have reviewed it are unanimous in their response – the game has a 100% approval rating on Steam with 24 reviews. Judging from the trailers, this looks like an action-platformer that reminds me a lot of the Mega Man games.
9/17 – Dog Duty (Trailer) (No Metacritic Score as of 9/19/20) – Developer Zanardi and Liza has mostly flown under the radar of critics, but their prior game, Battle Bruise, has a 91% approval rating on Steam with nearly 300 reviews. Dog Duty is a bit different, though, and appears to be a sorta' small-scale Real-Time Strategy game, with players commanding three units and positioning them to take out enemies. In any case, it certainly looks interesting.
Announced on 9/17 - 9/17 – Hades (Trailer) (Metacritic Score: 94) – I didn't list this in my predictions but it did not have a release listed prior to its release. This game is an action-packed Roguelike that critics praised for its excellent combat and fantastic story.
9/17 – Mini Motor Racing X (Trailer) (No Metacritic Score as of 9/19/20) – Critics overlooked this game when it released on multiple platforms in 2019, but Steam users liked it, with a 97% positive rating from over 35 user reviews. This game is also the successor to the iOS game Mini Motor Racing, which got a Metacritic score of 79. This looks to be a lighthearted racer with 4-player split-screen play and two different racing modes: top-down and behind-the-vehicle. Also, the Nintendo Switch version is getting new game modes, too. Given the lack of quality racing games on the Nintendo Switch, hopefully this will give players one more good option.
9/17 – Moero Crystal H (Trailer) (Metacritic Score: 78) – This is a game I missed in my original predictions, but list here for those looking at this article after the fact. This is a raunchy dungeon crawler that critics praised for its humor and solid gameplay.
Announced on 9/1/20: 9/17 – Super Punch Patrol (Trailer) (No Metacritic Score as of 9/19/20) – Game developer Bertil Hörberg has a stellar track record, having produced the Gunman Clive games and Mechstermination Force, all games that received Metacritic scores of 79 or higher. His new game, Super Punch Patrol, is a Final Fight-style Brawler with a similar cel-shaded "sketchy" art style to Gunman Clive.
Announced on 9/3/20: 9/18 – Super Mario 3D All-Stars (Trailer) (Metacritic Score: 83) – Now that this is officially announced and dated, this is the easiest call in the world to make. Two of the games in this collection have been called "the best videogame of all-time" more than just about any other games out there, and Super Mario Sunshine is pretty damn good too. Nintendo would have to mess up this release pretty severely for it to not get a high Metacritic score.
Announced on 9/1/20: 9/22 – Rebel Galaxy Outlaw (Trailer) – This game came out on PC in 2019, and Metacritic gives that version of the game a score of 77. Critics praised the game's space combat gameplay as being a spiritual successor to beloved classic Freelancer.
Announced on 9/10/20: 9/23 – Castlestorm II (Trailer) – The original Castlestorm got a Metacritic score of 78 when it released on the Nintendo Switch, and there's little reason to expect its sequel will fare any worse. This is a side-scrolling Tower Defense game that incorporates action and puzzle elements as well, with players building their towers and aiming a ballista at the enemy's tower to try to knock it down.
9/23 – Unrailed! (Trailer) – This game released on PC in 2019, and while critics overlooked it, the game has a nice 92% approval rating on Steam, with nearly 3600 user reviews. This game has a blocky “voxel”-style look that will undoubtedly draw comparison to Minecraft, as well as gameplay that has you mining for resources, but this game is a bit more focused, with players working together to try and build their train's tracks before it derails.
Announced on 9/3/20: 9/24 – Alluris (Trailer) – Released to multiple platforms in 2019, but not getting enough reviews to get a Metacritic score, the Steam version of the game has a 92% "very positive" rating with over 100 reviews. This is a card-based RPG with "choose your own adventure" elements.
9/24 – Dungreed (Trailer) – Yet another game critics overlooked but users thoroughly enjoyed, Dungreed's 2018 PC release has a 90% approval rating on Steam with 4575 reviews. This one looks to be a fast-paced action-platformer with RPG and Roguelike elements.
9/24 - Embracelet (Trailer) – Developer Machineboy's prior game, Milkmaid of the Milky Way, earned an average Metacritic score of just over 75 between all of its versions, and its follow-up looks to be even more ambitious, with players exploring an island and using a magical bracelet to solve puzzles.
9/24 – Rivals of Aether – Definitive Edition (Trailer) – This platformefighting game was released on PC in 2015 and Xbox One in 2018, yet there still haven't been enough reviews for the game to get a Metacritic score. Users are absolutely ecstatic about the game, though – it has a 94% positive rating on Steam with over 11,600 user reviews. The Nintendo Switch version also promises to include all of the game's add-on content, including cameo characters like Shovel Knight and Ori.
Announced on 9/8/20: 9/24 – RollerCoaster Tycoon 3 Complete Edition (Trailer) – This classic management sim may be 16 years old now, but it's still beloved by many, and the PC version has a Metacritic score of 81. This release includes the Soaked and Wild expansions, as well as the series' signature Coaster Cam.
9/25 – Trollhunters: Defenders of Arcadia (Trailer) – While a licensed game based on a direct-to-Netflix children's series doesn't seem like a surefire bet when it comes to quality, this one is being developed by Wayforward, who has been extremely consistent in putting out quality game after quality game in recent years, even rising above mediocre licenses with fantastic games like The Mummy Demastered. Hopefully this game will be in keeping with their usual quality.
August/September 2020 - Sunless Skies: Sovereign Edition (Trailer) – Well, this didn't come out in August, so that just leaves September. This is a follow-up to Sunless Sea, which released on the Switch earlier this year. However, it is generally agreed that Sunless Skies is much improved over its predecessor, with the 2019 release of the game on PC getting a Metacritic score of 87. This is a game that balances RPG and survival elements with a dark, almost Lovecraftian atmosphere in an alternate-world Victorian England swallowed up under the Earth.
September 2020 – Space Crew (Trailer) – This game is the successor to Bomber Crew, which got a Metacritic score of 75. Based on how Bomber Crew played, I'm guessing this one will have you controlling a spaceship by having you direct each member of the crew to control their own individual responsibility within the ship. Note: Delayed until October
Summer 2020 – Alwa's Legacy (Trailer) – This game got a Metacritic score of 78 when it released on PC earlier this year. Critics seem to be saying that this is a solid kid-friendly Metroidvania.
Summer 2020 – Othercide (Trailer) – This game already released on other platforms earlier this year, and the different versions of the game got an average Metacritic score of 76. This is a Tactics-style Strategy-RPG and critics praised its top-notch tactical gameplay.
Summer 2020 – Pixeljunk Eden 2 (Trailer) – The original Pixeljunk Eden got an average Metacritic score of just over 80, so there's good reason to expect its long-awaited sequel to be top-notch. This is a unique platformer that has you controlling a flea-like creature jumping and swinging on the scenery. Note: Delayed until Fall 2020
Q3 2020 – Nongunz: Doppelganger Edition (Trailer) – Nongunz was originally released on PC in 2017 and got a Metacritic score of 75. This is an Action-Platformer that critics praised for its challenging action.
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Anyway, that's what I could find for September 2020 on the Switch, but no doubt some of you have specific games you've got your eye on this next month. Please feel free to give a shout out to any game you feel deserves attention! :-)
submitted by CaspianX2 to NintendoSwitch [link] [comments]


2020.08.28 18:22 xXguitarsenXx Sapiens: A brief history of humankind – Yuval Noah Harari (Book review)

Definitions

The book in a nutshell:

Why are humans so powerful?
Cognitive revolution:
Agricultural revolution:
Scientific revolution:

Overall timeline

How the past shaped us

Cognitive revolution

The agricultural revolution

The scientific revolution

Why did the Europeans rule the world when we weren’t more advanced technologically?

  1. Modern science.
  1. Admitting we don’t know (ANKI)
  2. Focus on observations and mathematical models
  3. Possibility of new technology
  1. Capitalism

Advancements in the scientific revolution

Other topics from the book:

Happiness

Meaning of life

Humans are moving towards unity / Globalization

Religion:

  1. Liberal humanists: Every individual is sacred and should have freedom
  2. Socialist humanists: The collective is sacred, so we should have inequality
  3. Evolutionary/Nazi humanists: We should help those races with good genes while getting rid of the rest.

How homo sapiens are different

  1. They are manifested in the physical world
  2. They shape our desires
  1. They exist across almost all peoples minds

The end of sapiens

That was it...
You could also have read this summary on my blog. (In the future I will have more blog posts)
Please tell me what you think about this bullet-list type of summary :)
submitted by xXguitarsenXx to historyblogs [link] [comments]


2020.08.28 18:00 xXguitarsenXx Sapiens: A brief history of humankind – Yuval Noah Harari (Book review)

How many of these historical facts are correct?

Definitions
The book in a nutshell:
Why are humans so powerful?
Cognitive revolution:
Agricultural revolution:
Scientific revolution:
Overall timeline
How the past shaped us
Cognitive revolution
The agricultural revolution
The scientific revolution
Why did the Europeans rule the world when we weren’t more advanced technologically?
  1. Modern science.
  1. Admitting we don’t know (ANKI)
  2. Focus on observations and mathematical models
  3. Possibility of new technology
  1. Capitalism
Advancements in the scientific revolution
Other topics from the book:Happiness
Meaning of life
Humans are moving towards unity / Globalization
Religion:
  1. Liberal humanists: Every individual is sacred and should have freedom
  2. Socialist humanists: The collective is sacred, so we should have inequality
  3. Evolutionary/Nazi humanists: We should help those races with good genes while getting rid of the rest.
How homo sapiens are different
  1. They are manifested in the physical world
  2. They shape our desires
  1. They exist across almost all peoples minds
The end of sapiens
That was it...
You could also have read this summary on my blog. (In the future I will have more blog posts)
Please tell me what you think about this bullet-list type of summary :)
submitted by xXguitarsenXx to AskHistory [link] [comments]


2020.08.28 17:57 xXguitarsenXx Sapiens: A brief history of humankind – Yuval Noah Harari (Book review)

Definitions
The book in a nutshell:
Why are humans so powerful?
Cognitive revolution:
Agricultural revolution:
Scientific revolution:
Overall timeline
How the past shaped us
Cognitive revolution
The agricultural revolution
The scientific revolution
Why did the Europeans rule the world when we weren’t more advanced technologically?
  1. Modern science.
  1. Admitting we don’t know (ANKI)
  2. Focus on observations and mathematical models
  3. Possibility of new technology
  1. Capitalism
Advancements in the scientific revolution
Other topics from the book:Happiness
Meaning of life
Humans are moving towards unity / Globalization
Religion:
  1. Liberal humanists: Every individual is sacred and should have freedom
  2. Socialist humanists: The collective is sacred, so we should have inequality
  3. Evolutionary/Nazi humanists: We should help those races with good genes while getting rid of the rest.
How homo sapiens are different
  1. They are manifested in the physical world
  2. They shape our desires
  1. They exist across almost all peoples minds
The end of sapiens
That was it...
You could also have read this summary on my blog. (In the future I will have more blog posts)
Please tell me what you think about this bullet-list type of summary :)
submitted by xXguitarsenXx to Summarize [link] [comments]


2020.08.28 17:57 xXguitarsenXx Sapiens: A brief history of humankind – Yuval Noah Harari (Book review)

Definitions
The book in a nutshell:
Why are humans so powerful?
Cognitive revolution:
Agricultural revolution:
Scientific revolution:
Overall timeline
How the past shaped us
Cognitive revolution
The agricultural revolution
The scientific revolution
Why did the Europeans rule the world when we weren’t more advanced technologically?
  1. Modern science.
  1. Admitting we don’t know (ANKI)
  2. Focus on observations and mathematical models
  3. Possibility of new technology
  1. Capitalism
Advancements in the scientific revolution
Other topics from the book:Happiness
Meaning of life
Humans are moving towards unity / Globalization
Religion:
  1. Liberal humanists: Every individual is sacred and should have freedom
  2. Socialist humanists: The collective is sacred, so we should have inequality
  3. Evolutionary/Nazi humanists: We should help those races with good genes while getting rid of the rest.
How homo sapiens are different
  1. They are manifested in the physical world
  2. They shape our desires
  1. They exist across almost all peoples minds
The end of sapiens
That was it...
You could also have read this summary on my blog. (In the future I will have more blog posts)
Please tell me what you think about this bullet-list type of summary :)
submitted by xXguitarsenXx to nonfictionsummaries [link] [comments]


2020.08.28 17:57 xXguitarsenXx Sapiens: A brief history of humankind – Yuval Noah Harari (Book review)

Definitions
The book in a nutshell:
Why are humans so powerful?
Cognitive revolution:
Agricultural revolution:
Scientific revolution:
Overall timeline
How the past shaped us
Cognitive revolution
The agricultural revolution
The scientific revolution
Why did the Europeans rule the world when we weren’t more advanced technologically?
  1. Modern science.
  1. Admitting we don’t know (ANKI)
  2. Focus on observations and mathematical models
  3. Possibility of new technology
  1. Capitalism
Advancements in the scientific revolution
Other topics from the book:Happiness
Meaning of life
Humans are moving towards unity / Globalization
Religion:
  1. Liberal humanists: Every individual is sacred and should have freedom
  2. Socialist humanists: The collective is sacred, so we should have inequality
  3. Evolutionary/Nazi humanists: We should help those races with good genes while getting rid of the rest.
How homo sapiens are different
  1. They are manifested in the physical world
  2. They shape our desires
  1. They exist across almost all peoples minds
The end of sapiens
That was it...
You could also have read this summary on my blog. (In the future I will have more blog posts)
Please tell me what you think about this bullet-list type of summary :)
submitted by xXguitarsenXx to booksinshort [link] [comments]


2020.08.28 17:57 xXguitarsenXx Sapiens: A brief history of humankind – Yuval Noah Harari (Book review)

Definitions
The book in a nutshell:
Why are humans so powerful?
Cognitive revolution:
Agricultural revolution:
Scientific revolution:
Overall timeline
How the past shaped us
Cognitive revolution
The agricultural revolution
The scientific revolution
Why did the Europeans rule the world when we weren’t more advanced technologically?
  1. Modern science.
  1. Admitting we don’t know (ANKI)
  2. Focus on observations and mathematical models
  3. Possibility of new technology
  1. Capitalism
Advancements in the scientific revolution
Other topics from the book:Happiness
Meaning of life
Humans are moving towards unity / Globalization
Religion:
  1. Liberal humanists: Every individual is sacred and should have freedom
  2. Socialist humanists: The collective is sacred, so we should have inequality
  3. Evolutionary/Nazi humanists: We should help those races with good genes while getting rid of the rest.
How homo sapiens are different
  1. They are manifested in the physical world
  2. They shape our desires
  1. They exist across almost all peoples minds
The end of sapiens
That was it...
You could also have read this summary on my blog. (In the future I will have more blog posts)
Please tell me what you think about this bullet-list type of summary :)
submitted by xXguitarsenXx to BookSummary [link] [comments]


The Dating Game Backgound Music - YouTube Carlo Curley at Chester Cathedral, England, Part 1/5 Dating With No Sexual Organs  BORN DIFFERENT - YouTube In the dating and marriage scene, the advantage changes as ... The Grand Organ of St Paul's Cathedral - YouTube DATING vs MARRIED LIFE - YouTube Organ Donation Law in England (Romanian) - YouTube You Know You're Dating a Northern English Woman When ... 6 Rules for Dating Over 50 Engaged at Any Age - Coach ... This 18 Year Old Girl is Dating a 68 Year Old Man - YouTube

Organ Music for Good Listening Pipedreams

  1. The Dating Game Backgound Music - YouTube
  2. Carlo Curley at Chester Cathedral, England, Part 1/5
  3. Dating With No Sexual Organs BORN DIFFERENT - YouTube
  4. In the dating and marriage scene, the advantage changes as ...
  5. The Grand Organ of St Paul's Cathedral - YouTube
  6. DATING vs MARRIED LIFE - YouTube
  7. Organ Donation Law in England (Romanian) - YouTube
  8. You Know You're Dating a Northern English Woman When ...
  9. 6 Rules for Dating Over 50 Engaged at Any Age - Coach ...
  10. This 18 Year Old Girl is Dating a 68 Year Old Man - YouTube

SUBSCRIBE to Barcroft TV: http://bit.ly/Oc61Hj DESPITE being born without any sex organs, an 18-year-old girl remains confident about dating. Jyoti was born ... In this video, I discuss 6 rules that you should follow when dating over the age of 50. 01:29:16 - #1 Don't Bond Over Your Baggage 03:18:09 - #2 DOn't Call H... Carlo Curley at Chester Cathedral, England, Part 1/5. Marcel Dupré Prelude and Fugue No. 3 in G Minor A brief history of the Organ of Chester Cathedral An earlier instrument, with material dating ... Simon Johnson, Organist for St Paul's Cathedral, takes us behind the scenes to look at the workings of the Grand Organ at St Paul's Cathedral, London. Discus... Organ donation law in England is changing in spring 2020 to help save and improve lives. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. From boozy lunches, to her love of tea (black tea only) to tanning to extreme, this is what it's like to date a Northern English woman. Behind the scenes, da... Early on the gals have the ability to choose how the dating ritual goes, who wins and who loses, but as time goes on, that power dynamic changes, whether the... Relationships are full of love, romance and drama! But how much does life change after getting married? Download the HotelsCombined app here to get the best ... We interview a couple for our new series 'Strange Relationships'. We talk to an 18-year-old girl named Stephanie, who is dating a 68-year-old man named Rick....